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Table Of Contents

1.0 Introduction
1.1 The birth of the OTDR
1.2 Features, functions, and performance improvements
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Total internal reflection
Chapter 2
2.2 Fiber attenuation
2.3 Numerical aperture
2.4 Multipath (modal) dispersion
2.5 Chromatic dispersion
2.6 Wavelength-division-multiplexed systems
2.7 V-parameter , cut-off wavelength , and spot profile
2.8 Splices and connectors
2.9 Bending loss
2.10 Coherence
2.11 Summary
Suggested reading
Problems
3.0 Introduction
3.1 OTDR design
3.2 A typical OTDR waveform
3.3 Multiple-wavelength OTDRs
3.4 Optical masking
3.5 Evolution of the OTDR
3.6 Rayleigh backscatter
3.7 Dynamic range
3.8 Differences between multimode and single-mode OTDRs
3.8.1 Physical differences
3.9 Echoes and ghosts
3.10 Other types of OTDR configurations
3.10.1 Standard OTDR with an EDFA
3.10.2 Coherent-detection OTDR
3.10.3 Correlation OTDR
3.10.4 Short-coherence-length coherent OTDRs (multimode)
3.10.5 Photon-counting OTDRs
3.11 Summary
Performance characteristics of OTDRs
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Figures of merit
4.2 Historical figures of merit
4.3 Detailed figures of merit
4.3.1 Reflective dynamic range
4.3.2 Scattering dynamic range
4.3.3 Derivation of the noise floor
4.3.4 Dynamic-range margin
4.3.5 Usable dynamic range
4.3.6 Measurement range
4.3.8 Event resolution
4.3.9 Loss-measurement resolution
4.3.10 Return loss
4.3.11 Linearity
4.3.12 Data resolution
4.3.13 Clock accuracy
4.3.14 Cursor resolution
4.3.15 Refractive-index uncertainty
4.3.16 Speed of measurement
4.3.16.1 Fiber length
4.3.16.2 Interleaving
4.3.16.3 Data-processing speed
4.3.16.4 Display speed
4.3.17 Event-detection accuracy
4.4 Standards
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Sources of nonreflective events
5.3 Distance-measurement errors of nonreflective events
5.3.2 Distance-measurement errors caused by filtering
5.3.3 Other contributions to distance-measurement errors
6.0 Introduction
6.1 Loss-measurement errors caused by waveform noise
6.3 Loss-measurement errors on multimode fiber
6.4 Bending loss and stress loss in single-mode fibers
6.6 Intrinsic loss in single-mode fusion splices
7.0 Introduction
7.1 Background
7.2 Causes of reflections
7.2.1 Reflections from angled cleaves
7.2.2 Reflections from connectors
7.2.3 Reflection from mechanical splices
7.3 Measuring reflective events using an OTDR
7.5 Calibrating the OTDR’s backscatter coefficient
7.5.1 Calculating the backscatter coefficient
7.5.2 Measuring the backscatter coefficient
7.6 Integrated return loss
7.7 Summary
Complications caused by reflective events
8.0 Introduction
8.1 Reflections and the dead zone
8.2 Improving the dead zone by optical masking
8.3 Impact of reflections on transmitters and receivers
8.4 Dead zone box
8.5 Summary
9.0 Introduction
10.0 Introduction
10.2 OTDR requirements for testing networks with splitters
Automatic event-marking algorithms and calibration
11.0 Introduction
11.1 Types of event marking s
11.2 Functionality of different types of event marking s
11.3 Optimizing acquisition parameters
11.4 Measuring individual events
11.5 Testing event-marking software
11.5.1 Test-fiber calibration
11.5.2 Repeatability testing
11.5.3 Summary of testing event-marking software
11.6 Event-marking features
11.7 Remote OTDRs for monitoring networks
11.8 Summary
12.0 Introduction
12.1 Dead zone fixture
12.2 Fiber circulator
12.3 External-source test fixture
12.4 Loss calibration with fiber standard
12.5 Summary
13.0 Introduction
13.1 Measurement techniques
13.2 PMD model of optical fiber
13.3 Mathematical model of a polarization OTDR
13.4 Summary
14.0 Introduction
14.1 Intermodal dispersion
14.2 Intramodal dispersion
14.2.1 Material dispersion
14.2.2 Waveguide dispersion
14.3 Dispersion reduction in optical fibers
14.4 Measuring dispersion using an OTDR
14.6 Summary
15.0 Introduction
15.1 Durability
15.2 Display and controls
15.3 Human interface
15.4 Optical port
15.5 Accessories, options, and features
15.7 Performing a fiber-acceptance test
15.7.1 Sequential steps of an acceptance test
15.8 Measuring the splice attenuation
15.8.1 Corrective actions
15.9 When should OTDR traces be taken?
15.10 Span measurements
15.10.1 What measurements are required?
15.11 Field technician’s top-ten list
15.12 Summary
Glossary of Terms
Mathematical Glossary
Index
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AP,.Troubleshooting.optical.fiber.networks.understanding.and.Using.optical.time Domain.reflectometers.(2004),.HarCdrEd.[0120586614]

AP,.Troubleshooting.optical.fiber.networks.understanding.and.Using.optical.time Domain.reflectometers.(2004),.HarCdrEd.[0120586614]

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Published by Adrian Sipos

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Published by: Adrian Sipos on Mar 27, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/01/2013

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