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Alat Muzik Tradisional India

Alat Muzik Tradisional India

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Published by Prince Kirhu

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Published by: Prince Kirhu on Mar 27, 2012
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Indian Music InstrumentsSitar
 Sitar is of the most popular music instruments ofNorth India. The Sitar has a long neck with twentymetal frets and six to seven main cords. Below thefrets of Sitar are thirteen sympathetic strings whichare tuned to the notes of the Raga. A gourd, whichacts as a resonator for the strings is at the lower endof the neck of the Sitar. The frets are moved up anddown to adjust the notes. Some famous Sitar playersare Ustad Vilayat Khan, Pt. Ravishankar, Ustad Imrat Khan, Ustad Abdul HalimZaffar Khan, Ustad Rais Khan and Pt Debu Chowdhury.Sitar is said to be one of the prime musical instruments of Indian music and the mostused of all the stringed instruments. It has been almost 700 years since this musicinstrument was introduced to India. The word sitar originates from the Persian termsehtar, which is broken into she meaning three and tar meaning strings.According to historians, the famed musician of the 13
th
century, Amir Khusrao,reversed the strings of the veena, thereby inventing this instrument. Furthermodifications to the sitar were made in the eighteenth century with the addition ofthree strings.
 
This popular stringed instrument of Indian classical music consists of various parts,which are:
 
· Tumba: This is the lower hemispherical, hollow gourd
 
· Dandi: This is the stem of the sitar
 
· Gulu: This is the upper gourd that is used as a balance for the musician as he orshe plays the instrument
 
· Kunti: These are the tuning pegs. They are of two sizes. The larger ones areused to tune the main strings and the smaller ones for the sympathetic strings
 
· Tar: This is the string of the sitar. The sitar has three types of strings, which arethe drone strings, sympathetic strings and the playing stings· Parda are frets that are metal rods tied to the stem or neck of the sitar. They areadjusted by the musician for the required pitch
 
Basically there are two types of sitars, which are distinguished on the basis of thenumber of strings they have:
 
· The sitar with 13 sympathetic strings. This is tuned to the notes of the raga. Ithas 3 playing strings to cover three octaves; a fourth one reaching the bassoctave and 3 rhythm strings
 
· The sitar with 11 sympathetic strings. This smaller instrument is specificallydesigned high speed playingGenerally sitar is rested on the right shoulder with the right hand plucking the strings.The index finger of the left hand travels up and down the neck of the sitar. Playingthe sitar may seem like an easy task to on lookers, but it does require a high degreeof concentration and co-ordination. Even one string plucked out of sync will take theentire composition to a different tune.
Sarod
 Sarod has a small wooden body covered with skin and a fingerboard that is coveredwith steel. Sarod does not have a fret and has twenty-five strings of which fifteen aresympathetic strings. A metal gourd acts as a resonator. The strings are plucked witha triangular plectrum. Some notable exponents of Sarod are Ustad Ali Akbar Khan,Ustad Amjad Ali Khan, Pt. Buddhadev Das Gupta, Zarin Daruwalla and Brij Narayan.The sarod is a stringed instrument that is generally carved out of a single piece ofteakwood. Its belly is covered with goatskin. This instrument is played with plectrummade from coconut shell. This is probably one of the oldest instruments of Indianmusic. Carvings of it have been found in the Champa temple that was constructed inthe 1
st
century. One also comes across paintings and carvings of this stringedmusical instrument in the Ajanta caves.The history of Indian classical music claims that the famous musician of the 13
th
 century, Amir Khusrao had modified the sarod, creating the sitar; and later Ustad AliAkbar Khan modified the shape of the original instrument thereby improvising thetonal quality.The sarod has a number of strings that are fixed onto the instrument in accordanceto the roles they have to play. There are basically three types of strings:
 
· Four main strings
 
· Six rhythm and drone strings· Fifteen sympathetic strings
 
All the strings are made from metal.This instrument has gone through several modifications to suit the needs of thevaried musicians. Being one the prime instruments of Hindustani music, the variousgharanas added or reduced the number of strings according to their musical needs.For instance the maihar gharana sarod had a larger number of strings being strungat three levels, which were the upper, middle and lower. Whereas, the traditionalsarod commonly had only two levels
 
Sarangi
 Sarangi is one of the most popular and oldest bowed instruments in India. The body
 
of Sarangi is hollow and made of teak wood adorned with ivory inlays. Sarangi hasforty strings of which thirty seven are sympathetic. The Sarangi is held in a verticalposition and played with a bow. To play the Sarangi one has to press the fingernailsof the left hand against the strings. Famous Sarangi maestros are Rehman Bakhs,Pt Ram Narayan, Ghulam Sabir and Ustad Sultan Khan.The name derives from Sau Rangi meaning 100 colors. Sarangi is played with a bowand has four main strings and as many as forty resonant strings. It is generally usedto accompany singers but can also be a solo instrument.A number of bowed instruments across the country base their name on thisinstrument. It was commonly by musicians who created folk compositions. Thefollowing are some of the varied sarangis found across the country:
 
· Sarinda
 
· Chikara· Sindhi sarangi
 
· Gujrtan sarangi
 
· Dhadya sarangi
 
· Dedh pasli sarangi
 
The instruments dilruba and esraj have common physical characteristics that makethem resemble the classical sarangi.
 
This instrument was played to the tunes of the khayal, dhrupad and thumri vocals.However, as time went by this instrument gained prominence amongst courtesansand musicians began to look towards other musical instruments. However, thisinstrument has not lost complete existence because of prominent musicians likeGopal Misra, Pandit Ram Narayan, and Ustad Sabri Khan, who are regarded assarangi maestros.This bowed instrument is not too large as far as size is concerned. It is carved from asingle piece of wood. Its body is hollow. At the top and bottom end it is one-inchthick. The sides are barely half-an-inch in thickness. The sarangi has a metal barplaced along it. There are three main strings and one brass sympathetic string tunedby four pegs in the lower part of the instrument. The upper part has eleven pegs thattune the thirty-five to forty sympathetic strings fixed there.
Flute
 Flute is a simple cylindrical tube of uniform bore and associated with Indian musicsince time immemorial. Flutes vary in size. Flute is held horizontally and is inclineddownwards when it is played. To produce sound or melody one has to cover thefinger holes with the fingers of the left and right hand. Variations in pitch areproduced by altering the effective length of the air column. Notable flute exponents

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