organizes a biannual conference dedicated to this subject,and IRUG 7 was held in New York in 2006.This literature review is focused on key issues and trendsin Raman research in the field of art and archaeology duringthe past decade (1995 to summer 2006). Important topicsinclude the construction of spectral libraries, the evolutionin Raman instrumentation, pigment analysis, the identifica-tion of organic molecules, corrosion, ceramics and glass, thedifferent types of research questions that have been posed,and the different types of art objects under investigation.
2. Spectral Libraries and Chemometrics
Raman spectroscopic materials identification is often basedon the comparison of the Raman spectrum of the unknownsubstance with a spectral library of reference materials. Oneof the first spectral libraries to have been published is thatfrom University College London,
which gives an overviewof the Raman spectra of 56 inorganic pigments similar tothose used before 1850. The first paper described Ramanspectra recorded with HeNe (632.8 nm) and Ar
(514.5 nm)lasers, while Burgio and Clark extended this database in alater publication, which included some organic materialsexamined using longer wavelength laser excitation (1064,647.1, and 780 nm).
This work is easily accessible throughthe Internet, and therefore, it forms a good starting point forpeople who are new in the field. Other extensive spectrallibraries include e-VISART
and the COLORAMAN project(http://www.ct.infn.it/
The e-VISART databasecontains in addition infrared spectra relevant to the sameartists’ materials. Castro et al. give an overview of severaldatabases that are available on the Internet
which containmostly reference spectra of mineral pigments. Several on-line databases are available, including those from LENS inFlorence (Italy, http://srv.chim.unifi.it/raman/), the Diparti-mento di Scienze della Terra in Siena (Italy, http:// www.dst.unisi.it/geofluids-lab/), and D. Bersani from Parma(Italy, http://www.fis.unipr.it/
bersani/raman/raman/ spettri.htm). The Web site of the Californian Institute of Technology contains an extensive database of Raman spectraof minerals (http://minerals.gps.caltech.edu/files/raman/), aswell as links to other interesting spectral databases, such asthose of Ens in Lyon (France, http://www.ens-lyon.fr/LST/ Raman/index.php), of the RRUFF project in Arizona (USA,http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/rruff/), and of the National In-stitute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (aist)in Nagoya (Japan, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/rasmin/ E_index.htm). The Infrared and Raman Users Group (IRUG,http://www.irug.org/) manages an extensive spectral library,containing mainly infrared spectra as well as some Ramandata of artists’ materials. These databases are usually focusedon old materials, mainly pigments, while contemporaryartists’ materials have hitherto remained rather neglected;this can probably be ascribed to the significantly largenumber of organic synthetic dyes and pigments which havebeen synthesized and used in modern art work.Apart from digital spectral libraries, some authors havepublished a series of papers with spectral data dedicated tospecific types of materials.
For example, the Ramanspectra of a broad range of minerals have been publishedby R. Frost et al.,
while the group of H.G.M. Edwardset al. has published several papers containing the FT-Ramanspectra of biomaterials.
Some papers also contain anoverview of dispersive Raman spectra of specific groups of artists’materialswhichcanbeusefulfortheiridentification.
Peter Vandenabeele works as a postdoctoral fellow at Ghent University,where he performs research in analytical Raman spectroscopy. The mainfields of application are archaeometry, microbiology, pharmaceuticalanalysis, and geology. He authored or coauthored more than 30 peer-reviewed research papers on this subject as well as some chapters inbooks. He organized the International Conference on the application ofRaman spectroscopy in art and archaeology in Ghent in September 2003.Prof. Howell G. M. Edwards is professor in molecular spectroscopy atthe University of Bradford. He has published more than 300 researchpapers and book chapters on Raman spectroscopy, in the domains of artand archaeology, forensics, astrobiology, etc. He organized severalconference sessions on this subject and a dedicated meeting on Ramanspectroscopy in art and archaeology in the British Museum.Prof. Luc Moens is professor in analytical chemistry and vice-rector ofGhent University. His research concerns mass spectroscopy and Ramanspectroscopy, often dedicated to archaeometry. The main topic of hisresearch group is the development of analytical methods with applicationfields in biomedical, environmental, geological, archaeometrical, andindustrial analysis.
Chemical Reviews, 2007, Vol. 107, No. 3 Vandenabeele et al.