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ASME 125 Vibration & Acoustic 2003

ASME 125 Vibration & Acoustic 2003

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Transactionsof the ASME
®
Editor
LAWRENCE A. BERGMAN
Assistant to the Editor
LINDA CONWAY
Past Editors
F. EHRICHT. CONRYD. J. INMANDESIGN ENGINEERING DIVISION
Associate Editors
J. CUSUMANO
2003
S. DYKE
2005
G. FLOWERS
2005
M. I. FRISWELL
2004
J. GINSBERG
2005
R. P. S. HAN
2003
J. MAIN
2005
D. QUINN
2005
R. PARKER
2005
C. H. TAN
2004
J. WICKERT
2003
NOISE CONTROL AND ACOUSTICSDIVISIONR. KELTIE
2004
R. OHAYON
2003
BOARD ON COMMUNICATIONS
Chair and Vice-President
OZDEN OCHOAOFFICERS OF THE ASME
President,
REGINALD VACHON
Exec. Director
VIRGIL R. CARTER
Treasurer
R. E. NICKELLPUBLISHING STAFF
Managing Director, Engineering
THOMAS G. LOUGHLIN
Director, Technical Publ.
PHILIP DI VIETRO
Manager, Journals
JOAN MERANZE
Production Coordinator
RAY RAMONAS
Production Assistant
MARISOL ANDINO
Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Vibration andAcoustics
(ISSN 1048-9002) is published quarterly(Jan., April, July, Oct.) by The American Society ofMechanical Engineers, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY10016. Periodicals postage paid at New York, NY andadditional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send addresschanges to Transactions of the ASME, Journal ofVibration and Acoustics, c/o THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OFMECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 22 Law Drive, Box 2300,Fairfield, NJ 07007-2300.
CHANGES OF ADDRESS
must bereceived at Society headquarters seven weeks beforethey are to be effective. Please sendold label and new address.
STATEMENT
from By-Laws. The Society shall not beresponsible for statements or opinions advanced in papersor ... printed in its publications (B7.1, Par. 3).
COPYRIGHT © 2003
by the American Society of MechanicalEngineers. Authorization to photocopy material forinternal or personal use under circumstances not fallingwithin the fair use provisions of the Copyright Act is grantedby ASME to libraries and other users registered withthe Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) TransactionalReporting Service provided that the base fee of $3.00 perarticle is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Dr.,Danvers, MA 01923. Request for special permission or bulkcopying should be addressed to Reprints/PermissionDepartment.
INDEXED
by Applied Mechanics Reviews andEngineering Information, Inc. Canadian Goods andServices Tax Registration #126148048
TECHNICAL PAPERS
249 Spectrum of High-Frequency Acoustic Noise in Inviscid Liquid-LinearApproximation for Spherical WavesL. Likhterov and A. Berman252 Theory on Pitch Noise and Its ApplicationYukio Nakajima257 Investigation of the Sound Transmission into an Advanced Grid-StiffenedStructureJeffrey S. Vipperman, Deyu Li, Ilya Avdeev, and Steven A. Lane267 Optimal Stiffener Design for Interior Sound Reduction Using a TopologyOptimization Based ApproachJianhui Luo and Hae Chang Gea274 New Evaluation Method on Gear Dynamics Using Continuous andDiscrete Wavelet TransformsYuji Ohue and Akira Yoshida282 A Stochastic Model for Simulation and Diagnostics of Rolling ElementBearings With Localized FaultsJ. Antoni and R. B. Randall290 Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of a Rotor Shaft System With ViscoelasticallySupported BearingsNabeel Shabaneh and Jean W. Zu299 Nonlinear Parameter Estimation in Rotor-Bearing System Using VolterraSeries and Method of Harmonic ProbingAnimesh Chatterjee and Nalinaksh S. Vyas307 Effect of Thrust Magnetic Bearing on Stability and Bifurcation of aFlexible Rotor Active Magnetic Bearing SystemY. S. Ho, H. Liu, and L. Yu317 Torsional Vibration Analysis of Complicated Multi-Branched ShaftingSystems by Modal Synthesis MethodChun-Ping Zou, Duan-Shi Chen, and Hong-Xing Hua324 Study on the Dynamics of a Rotor in a Maneuvering AircraftFusheng Lin and Guang Meng328 Control of Self-Excited Vibration of a Rotor System With Active GasBearingsJinhao Qiu, Junji Tani, and Taekyu Kwon335 Vibration of Flex Circuits in Hard Disk DrivesJ. A. Wickert343 Vibration Control of a Traveling Suspended System Using WaveAbsorbing ControlM. Saigo, K. Tani, and H. Usui351 Dynamic Stiffness Formulation and Its Application for a Combined Beamand a Two Degree-of-Freedom SystemJ. R. Banerjee359 Effect of Damping on Asymmetric SystemsPaolo Gallina
 Journal of Vibrationand Acoustics
Published Quarterly by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
VOLUME 125 NUMBER 3 JULY 2003
Contents continued on inside back cover
 
TECHNICAL BRIEFS
The ASME Journal of Vibration and Acoustics is abstracted andindexed in the following:
Acoustics Abstracts, Aluminum Industry Abstracts, Applied Science & Technology Index, AMR Abstracts Database, Aquatic Science and Fisheries Abstracts, Civil Engineering Abstracts, Compendex (The electronic equivalent of Engineering Index),Corrosion Abstracts, Current Contents, EEA (Earthquake Engineering Abstracts Database), Electronics & Communications Abstracts, Engineered Materials Abstracts,Engineering Index, Enviroline (The electronic equivalent of Environment Abstracts),Environment Abstracts, Environmental Engineering Abstracts, Environmental Science and Pollution Management, Excerpta Medica, Fluidex, Health & Safety SciencAbstracts, INSPEC, Materials Science Citation Index, Mechanical & Transportation Engineering Abstracts, Mechanical Engineering Abstracts, METADEX (The electronic equivalent of Metals Abstracts and Alloys Index), Pollution Abstracts, Referativnyi Zhur- nal, Shock & Vibration Digest, Solid State and Superconductivity Abstracts, Steels Alert 
Contents continued
Volume 125, Number 3Journal of Vibration and Acoustics JULY 2003
 
L. LikhterovA. Berman
Institutes for Applied Researchand Dept. of Biotechnology Engineering,Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva, 84105, Israel
Spectrum of High-FrequencyAcoustic Noise in InviscidLiquid-Linear Approximation forSpherical Waves
The high-frequency asymptotics of the acoustic noise spectrum is considered for the caseof spherically symmetric waves propagating in an unbounded inviscid liquid. Using theKirkwood and Bethe hypothesis regarding kinetic enthalpy, the Euler equations, the equa-tion of state in the Tait’s form and following linearization allow the kinetic enthalpy and ‘‘reduced’’ pressure to be obtained. The Fourier transform yields the spectral density of acoustic energy which proves to be inversely proportional to the square frequency and decreases approximately by 6 decibels per octave with increase of a frequency.
DOI: 10.1115/1.1570446
1 Introduction
It is known that the acoustic noise spectrum has some slope inthe high range of frequencies. The typical Knudsen sea-noisespectral slope is about
5 decibels per octave
1
,
see p. 336
.Acoustic noise spectra generated by oscillating bubbles have beenstudied most completely. Analysis of the acoustic energy gener-ated versus frequency
2
suggests that the
5 decibels per octavewind dependent ambient noise slopes of the Knudsen curves arecaused by the shorter lifetimes of high-frequency bubbles, ratherthan significantly lower peak pressure. The average of severalacoustic spectra from a single energetic spill was shown a slope of 
5 decibels per octave over the frequency range up to 8 kHzaccording to the same authors. The experimental data cited byLonguet-Higgins
3
show that deep water bubble noise spectra inhigh-frequency range
over 10 kHz
have the slope of 
5–7
decibels per octave. Pumphrey and Crum
4
have obtained acous-tic power spectra for rain drops falling onto a lake in slightlywindy conditions which have the slope approximately
5 deci-bels per octave. In the spacious review by Prosperetti and Oguz
5
, the comparison between measured and computed underwaternoise spectra demonstrates the decrease of sound levels about
5.5 decibels per octave. According to Urick 
6
,
see p. 209
, thespectral slope of a spectrum of deep-sea noise is
5–6
dB/ octave in the frequency band from one up to hundred kilohertz,and further, the thermal noise leads to the 6 dB/octave increase of the spectrum level. However, such a rise gives the unlimitedacoustic energy (
 E 
ac
0
Sd 
 
, where
S
is the spectral density and
 
is the frequency
. It is of interest to elucidate analytically theasymptotic behavior of an acoustic spectrum of spherical wavesspreading in unbounded inviscid medium for following compari-son with experimental data.
2 Initial Equations
The initial system of governing equations is the Navier-Stokesequations which for inviscid medium are reduced to the Eulerequations
the spherical case is considered and the radial velocityis denoted
 
 
omitting the index
:
  
   

1
  
 p
 
the motion equation
(1)
  
2
 
 
   
   
0
the continuity equation
(2)with addition of the Tait’s equation of state for water
 p
 B p
0
 B
  
0
n
, (3)where
B
300 MPa
3000 atm and
n
7.As has been noted by Vogel, Bush and Parlitz
7
, the equationof state given by Rice and Walsh
8
may be used but this equa-tion can not easily be incorporated into the Gilmore
9
model thathas been developed on the basis of the Kirkwood and Bethe hy-pothesis
limited to ongoing waves
described in the monographby Cole
10
.Related more rigorous and general results can be obtained forthe radiated pressure from a bubble taking into account the heatconduction in the fluid outside the bubble and the effects of theliquid compressibility
11
. However, the Kirkwood and Bethetheory gives good results and therefore found wide use for study-ing the generation and propagation of shock waves. Beside that, itis assumed that the considered process will be isothermal. In theanalysis that follows, the above-mentioned hypothesis is em-ployed. In terms of the enthalpy,
dh
dp
 / 
 
, the sound speed,
c
2
 
 p
 / 
 
, and above-mentioned hypothesis which postulates thatthe kinetic enthalpy propagates in medium with the velocity
c
 
:
  
c
 
  
h
 
2
2
0, (4)the Euler equations
1
and
2
can be written according to Cole
10
as
  
   

 
h
 
, (5)
  
2
 
1
c
02
 
h
 
. (6)It should be noted that Eq.
4
is not an equivalent to
 
 / 
 
(
c
 
)
 
 / 
 
(
 
)
0, where
 
is the flow potential, but its use al-lows the relatively simpler result to be obtained.According to the Tait’s equation, the enthalpy,
h
, can be ex-pressed in following form:
Contributed by the Technical Committee on Vibration and Sound for publicationin the J
OURNAL OF
V
IBRATION AND
A
COUSTICS
. Manuscript received May 2002;Revised February 2003. Associate Editor: R. F. Keltie.
Copyright
©
2003 by ASMEJournal of Vibration and Acoustics
JULY 2003, Vol. 125
Õ
249

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