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GIT Lecture

GIT Lecture



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Published by dhainey

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Published by: dhainey on Dec 06, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Pathology of the oesophagus:a) disorders of motility, diverticula, varicesb) reflux exophagitisc) esophageal carcinomaPathology of the stomach:a) gastritisb) peptic ulcer,c) tumors - polyps, carcinoma, lymphoma,stromal tumors.Appendicitis:a) acute - morphologic types, evolution, complicationsb) chronic - evolution and complicationsPathology of the small and large intestine:a) vascular disordersb) inflammatory diseases, infections, enterocolitisc) Crohn´s diseased) ulcerative colitise) malabsorption syndromesPathology of the intestines:a) neoplasmsb) polyps - non neoplastic, adenomatous - typesc) gastrointestinal polyposis syndromesd) colorectal carcinoma; lymphomase) intestinal lymphomas, stromal tumors
Clinical Overview
Esophagus - most common disorders are
reflux esophagitis
(due toexposure of the lower esophagus to gastric acid regurgitating upwardsfrom the stomach) and
, both squamous andadenocarcinoma being important.In children,
esophageal atresia
and abnormal developmental links withthe trachea are important congenital malformations.The stomach is an important site of 
peptic ulceration
, the ulcerationbeing due to breakdown of the normal mechanisms which protect thestomach mucosa from its own acid.The small intestine is the major site of absorption of the basic foodmaterials, and diseases of small intestinal mucosa may lead tomalabsorption syndromes; an important cause is
celiac disease
(gluten enteropathy) which is an immune process leading to destructionof the small intestinal mucosa.The small intestine, particularly ileum, is the most common site for thechronic inflammatory disease called
Crohn’s disease.
Acute inflammatory disorders of the small bowel are common buttransient, being due to bacterial or viral infection. The stomach andcolon are usually also involved (
infective gastroenteritis
Most common inflammatory disease of the entire alimentary tract whichrequires surgical treatment is
acute appendicitis
, mainly in children andyoung adults, but occasionally in mature adults and the elderly where thediagnosis may be missed.The colon may also be involved in the chronic inflammatory condition
Crohn’s disease
, but is the main site of the chronic intermittentinflammatory disease called
ulcerative colitis
.Predisposing factors to colonic cancer - neoplastic polyps in the colonicmucosa (
adenomatous polyps
).Colorectal carcinoma there is a well-recognized sequence of changes from benign polyp to invasive adenocarcinoma.Colon - mechanical abnormalities
diverticular disease
.Disorders of the anus are a frequent are mainly trivial with distressingsymptoms (hemorrhoids, pruritus ani, anal fissure); the only life-threatening disease of the anus is squamous carcinoma.

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thanks alot for this bnift informations
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