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A practical framework for planning pro-development climate policy

A practical framework for planning pro-development climate policy

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MCA4climate is a major new UNEP initiative providing practical assistance to governments in preparing their climate change mitigation and adaptation plans and strategies. It aims to help governments, particularly in developing countries, identify policies and measures that are low cost, environmentally effective and consistent with national development goals. It does this by providing a structured approach to assessing and prioritizing climate-policy options, while taking into consideration associated social, economic, environmental and institutional costs and benefits. In doing so, it seeks to count er the widely held perception that tackling climate change is costly, highlight the potential developmental benefits of addressing climate change and encourage action to that end.
MCA4climate is a major new UNEP initiative providing practical assistance to governments in preparing their climate change mitigation and adaptation plans and strategies. It aims to help governments, particularly in developing countries, identify policies and measures that are low cost, environmentally effective and consistent with national development goals. It does this by providing a structured approach to assessing and prioritizing climate-policy options, while taking into consideration associated social, economic, environmental and institutional costs and benefits. In doing so, it seeks to count er the widely held perception that tackling climate change is costly, highlight the potential developmental benefits of addressing climate change and encourage action to that end.

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Published by: United Nations Environment Programme on Mar 28, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/04/2013

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ContributorsContributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Contributors Copyright © United Nations Environment Programme, 2011.This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any ormor educational or non-prot purposes without special permissionrom the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement o the source ismade. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy o any publication thatuses this publication as a source.No use o this publication may be made or resale or or anyother commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission inwriting rom the United Nations Environment Programme.DisclaimerThe designations employed and the presentation o thematerial in this publication do not imply the expression o any opinionwhatsoever on the part o the United Nations Environment Programmeconcerning the legal status o any country, territory, city or area or oits authorities, or concerning delimitation o its rontiers or boundaries.Moreover, the views expressed do not necessarily represent thedecision or the stated policy o the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme, nor does citing o trade names or commercial processesconstitute endorsement.
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Climate is an inordinate challenge but also an inordinateopportunity to transorm economies onto a low-carbon, resource-ecient Green Economy path.Catalyzing clean energy will not only cut greenhouse-gasemissions as part o eorts to limit a global temperature rise to under2 degrees C or more, it also represents a way o curbing health-hazardous air pollution while oering a rapid path to address energypoverty, especially in rural areas o developing economies.Meanwhile enhancing ecosystems such as orests,mangroves and seagrasses in order to conserve their carbon stockscan also trigger multiple benets rom boosting water suppliesand improving agriculture to maintaining natural sea deences andnurseries or sh. The 17th Conerence o the Parties meeting inDurban, South Arica, later this year presents the world with anotheropportunity to advance the climate agenda and co-operative actionunder the UN Climate Convention.It is crucial that those actions are designed within a coherentand robust policy-planning ramework to ensure that they are bothcost-eective and compatible with broader social, economic andenvironmental goals. For developing countries, sound climate-policy planning will also enhance access to climate nance rom thedeveloped ones.Climate-policy planning is a complex undertaking. Manydeveloping countries are only just starting to consider how to goabout it and some require improved access to the requisite knowledge,expertise and technical skills. Drawing upon best practices, triedand tested in other parts o the world, is clearly an advantage.The MCA4climate, a new UNEP initiative, is designed to assistpolicymakers, particularly in the developing world, in that endeavour.It oers concrete guidance and recommendations on a number ocritical issues and proposes a ormal ramework or evaluating climatemitigation and adaptation policies, paving a practical way orward sothat countries evolve sustainably and grow their economies in a waythat keeps humanity’s ootprint within planetary boundaries. It drawson the work o leading experts on climate policymaking rom aroundthe world and uses an innovative approach to assessing policiesthat ensures that climate policies and strategies take ull account odevelopmental concerns and objectives.The MCA4climate initiative refects UNEP’s mission toprovide leadership and encourage partnership in caring or theenvironment by inspiring, inorming and enabling nations andpeoples to improve their quality o lie without compromising that outure generations—issues at the centre o Rio+20 next year in Brazilas governments look to scale-up and accelerate the implementationo the agreements, including those relating to climate change,established in Rio in 1992.Achim Steiner,UN Under-Secretary General and Executive DirectorUnited Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
 
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UNEP is the convenor o the MCA4climate initiative, which was launchedat the end o 2009 with nancial support rom theGovernment o Spain.Our role is to bring together leading experts rom around the world, toco-ordinate their analysis, to manage the consultation process and toensure the legitimacy o their ormal submissions. The UNEP team, parto the Division o Technology, Industry and Economics based in Paris andworking on MCA4climate comprises:Şerban Scrieciu:project management, climate economics andpolicy evaluation ramework.Sophy Bristow:multi-criteria decision support tool, casestudies and outreach.Daniel Puig: programme management. UNEP also acknowledges the assistance oTrevor Morganinpreparing this report.Main partnersSeveral acclaimed international experts have contributedtowards the development o the MCA4climate initiative and ondierent parts o the guidance package. Some have helped us deneour approach and develop guidance documents, while others haveapplied the generic methodology to a specic mitigation or adaptationtheme. Our main partners are listed below in alphabetical order:Frank Ackerman(Stockholm Environment Institute US):guidance on climate-change economics and critical issues orclimate-policy analysis.Valerie Belton(University o Strathclyde): guidance on multi-criteria decision analysis and methodology development.Kornelis Blok(Ecoys): mitigation theme guidance onimproving energy eciency and saving energy.Ariane de Bremond (University o Maryland): adaptation theme guidance on increasing terrestrial ecosystemsresilience.Zaid Chalabi(London School o Hygiene and TropicalMedicine): methodology development and adaptation themeguidance on reducing human health impacts and risks.William Cheung(University o East Anglia): adaptation themeguidance on increasing marine ecosystems resilience.Heleen de Coninck (Energy Research Centre o the Netherlands): mitigation theme guidance on capturing andstoring emissions o CO
2
.William Easterling (Penn State University): mitigation theme guidance on improving land use management.
 
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At the UN Climate Change Conerence in Cancun inDecember 2010, the countries o the world laid the oundation or themost ar-reaching collective eort the world has ever seen to reducecarbon emissions, and to build a system which makes all countriesaccountable to one another or those emission reductions.Under the Cancun Agreements, all industrialized nationsmade ocial their reduction pledges, and committed themselves todevelop low-carbon development plans or strategies. Developingcountries made ocial their nationally appropriate mitigation actions(NAMAs) which seek a deviation rom business-as-usual emissions by2020, and were encouraged to develop low-carbon growth strategies.In addition, the Cancun Agreements provide the strongestsignal countries have ever given to the private sector that we aremoving toward low-carbon economies, by committing to a maximumtemperature rise o 2 degrees Celsius, and a consideration o amaximum o 1.5 degrees in the near uture.It is clear that the poorer developing countries willneed substantial nancial and technical support in preparing andimplementing mitigation and adaptation actions. The agreementsin Cancun on mobilizing nance or developing countries, includingthe establishment o a Green Climate Fund and a registry to matchaction with unding and other types o support, constitute major stepsorward. So do the agreements on a new Technology Mechanism andAdaptation Committee.All countries accept the need or collective action on climatechange. But national responses to it will need to vary accordingto each country’s circumstances and potential. It is the job ogovernments to set laws and regulations to drive changes in businessand public behaviour that mitigate greenhouse gas emissions andenhance our capacity to adapt to climate change.For the developing countries, climate plans will need tobe compatible with and supportive o their development goals. Ideveloping countries are convinced that there are major developmentbenets to be drawn rom climate action, such as aster long-termgrowth, better employment prospects and reduced poverty, theywill be much more likely to embark on policies to put them on alow-carbon development path.That is why UNEP’s MCA4climate initiative, which providesvaluable guidance to policy makers on drawing up and improvingtheir climate plans taking account o the ull range o socio-economicand environmental concerns, can prove highly eective in stimulatingcost-eective national actions.I wish this initiative every success. Christiana Figueres,Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework Conventionon Climate Change (UNFCCC)

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