Historical Background of Orthopedic Nursing
The word ‘orthopedics’ was derived from the Greek words; orthos meaning straightor free of deformity and pais meaning child.Orthopedics also called orthopedic surgery medical specialty concerned with thepreservation and restoration of function of the skeletal system and its associatedstructures, i.e., spinal and other bones, joints, and muscles.Nicolas Andry, a professor of medicine at the University of Paris published atextbook in Orthopedics in 1741 concerning the following;1.Maintaining a straight child2.Straightening a deformed child3.Finding new ways to straighten deformed childIn 1728-1793, John Hunter contributed to the advancement of understandingfractures and other musculo-skeletal injuries.Orthopedics began in the 18th century with the pioneering efforts of Jean AndréVenet, who established an institute in Switzerland for the treatment of crippled children'sskeletal deformities.In 1834-1891, Hugh Owen Thomas, an Englishman specialized in the treatment of chronic joint disease, fractures and dislocations.In 1867-1948, Agnes Hunt, referred to as the Florence of Nightingale of OrthopedicCenter in Great Britain. The efforts of Sir Robert Jones and the massive casualties of World War I led to thefounding of many orthopedic training centers in the early 20th century.In 1840, William Little established the Royal Orthopedic Infirmary in Great Britain.In 1857, Anthonius Methyson of Holland described the plaster bandage.In 1866, the New York Orthopedic Dispensary was formed.A vastly increased knowledge of muscular functions and of the growth anddevelopment of bone was gained in the 19th century. Significant advances at this timewere the new operation of tenotomy (the cutting of tendons, which made correctingdeformities easier), the surgical correction of clubfoot, the invention of the Thomas splint(which provided better support for fractures of long bones in the limbs), and theintroduction of quick-setting plaster of Paris for use in orthopedic bandages.Modern orthopedics has extended beyond the treatment of fractures, brokenbones, strained muscles, torn ligaments and tendons, and other traumatic injuries to dealwith a wide range of acquired and congenital skeletal deformities and with the effects of degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis. A specialty that originally depended on theuse of heavy braces and splints, orthopedics now utilizes bone grafts and artificial plastic joints for the hip and other bones damaged by disease, as well artificial limbs specialfootwear, and braces to return mobility to disabled patients. Orthopedics uses thetechniques of physical medicine and rehabilitation and occupational therapy in addition tothose of traditional medicine and surgery.
History of the Philippine Orthopedic Center
POC started in February 9, 1945 by PCAU General Hospital. The US Armyestablished the hospital in Mandaluyong, Rizal. It was then called as MandaluyongEmergency Hospital. Its main purpose is to help take care of the civilian casualties of war.But its function was not only as emergency basis seeing not only victims of wars but alsoall cases.In May 1945, the hospital was turned over to the Phil. Government. In August 1945,the Bureau of Health took over and only fracture cases and bone joint condition remained. The hospital kept functioning during those difficult years and it is attributed to theskill, ingenuity, dedication and foresight of the staff lead by Dr. Jose V. delos Santos. The hospital finally transferred to its present site in Quezon City.
Review of Structure and Function of the Musculo-skeletal System
I The BonesA.The human skeleton consist of two main division:1.Axial – body upright structurea) Skullb) vertebral columnc) ribs2.Appendicular – the body appendagesa) Armsb) hipsc) legsB.Four major bone type1.Long bones - length exceeds breadth and thickness2.Short bones - equal in main dimensions3.Flat bones – primary made up of cancellous bone tissue4.Irregular bonesC.Long Bones:1.Structurea)Diaphysis – shaft provides strength resist bendingb)Metaphysis – flared portion between diaphysis and epiphysisc)Epiphysis – end
Primary cancellous bone
Assist with bone developmentd)Epiphyseal plate/line – between metaphysis and epiphysis- Cartilage growth in length of diaphysis and metaphysise)Periosteum – connective tissue covering bone
continues at the end of bone with joint capsule butdoes not cover articular cartilage2.Blood supplya)Nutrient artery – tunnel in the diaphysis of long boneb)Periosteal vessels – supply compmact bones with nutrients