which can be rearranged for integration as,, (4)and integrated to give,, (5)or, in simplified form,(6) . (6)As usual we define half-life as the time when [B] = ½ [B]
, which gives,, (7), (8). (9) Note that in this case the half-life depends on [B]
as opposed to depending on [B]
for a simplesecond order reaction, and being independent of [B]
for a first order reaction.
Techniques for finding rate laws (NOT from the balanced equation.)
We emphasize that the form of the rate law for a chemical reaction
be deduced from the balanced reaction equation. It takes new experimental data (or new theories) to get the rate lawfor a reaction. We will mention three methods for determining the rate law for a reaction fromexperimental data.
Run several experiments at different initial concentrations to see how the half-life depends on[B]
If the half-life does not depend on the initial concentration then the reaction is first order.If the half-life of the reaction is proportional to 1/[B]
then the reaction is simple second order. If the half-life is proportinal to 1/[B]
then the reaction is simple third order, and so on. Mixedsecond and third order reactions are more complicated, but half-lives can be defined for thesecases and the dependence of the half-life on [A]
can be used to determine the rate law.