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Schnieder Power Logic_PART2

Schnieder Power Logic_PART2

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Published by: Michael Parohinog Gregas on Mar 29, 2012
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Volume 8, Issue 2
( . . . continued on page 2) 
Monitoring Induction Motors forEnergy Savings (Part 2)
With limited natural resources and the ever increasing global demand or energy,it only stands to reason that energy costs will continue to increase into the uture(barring some revolutionary technological development in the energy sector).And as energy costs rise around the world, the incentive or acilities to operatetheir equipment more eciently will compound over time. There are mandatorymeans (e.g., regulations) that authorities use to enorce conservation, andcompensatory means (e.g., special rate taris) that reward users or using lessenergy. In either case, decreasing energy consumption will decrease the bottomline costs to the user.To eectively reduce energy costs, industrial acilities should begin by evaluatingtheir number one energy consuming culprit: motors. Many studies have shownthat motors in industrial acilities consume by ar the largest percentage oenergy o any electrical device used in the US inrastructure. Tens o billions okWh are consumed by motors each year accounting or over 25% o all electricitysales in the US. The most common type o motor in use today is the polyphaseinduction motor, over 90% o which are squirrel cage induction motors. Becauseo their prevalence throughout the industrial (and commercial) sector, polyphaseinduction motors oer a great potential savings opportunity in both energy andoperational costs during the motor’s useul lie.An adequate assessment o the impact that induction motors can have on yourenergy bill requires a detailed knowledge o the motor’s many operational andelectrical parameters. Permanently-installed monitoring devices are the mosteective tool in the arsenal to reduce energy consumption, especially in motors.Knowing which parameters to monitor and evaluate will help the user maximizeenergy savings.
Monitoring your Motors 
Each motor within a acility operates with some level o distinctiveness rom othermotors. This distinctiveness may be due to a mixture o actors including:
Nameplate ratings• Voltages• Load/ApplicationDuty cycle• EnvironmentAdjacent loads• Impedances• Age
The more knowledge that can be accumulated about a motor and how itoperates, the easier it is to reduce energy costs associated with that motor.Permanently-installed monitoring systems are particularly useul because they
( . . . continued from page 1) 
Page 2are able to capture a great deal o inormation (bothreal-time and historical) over the motor’s lie.A undamental issue that can aect a motor’s energyusage is its suitability or the intended application.Motors are designed to operate most eciently attheir nameplate rating. Selecting the wrong motoror a particular application or operating the motoroutside its recommended parameters will decreasethe motor’s perormance, introducing additionallosses into the electrical system. Monitoring systemsare able to identiy many symptoms that result inreduced motor perormance including deviationsrom various nameplate parameters. For example,
Figure 1
illustrates several consequences thatoccur when the voltage deviates rom the motor’snameplate voltage rating. 
Where to Look for Savings 
There is a wealth o inormation about a motor’swellbeing buried in the characteristics o theelectrical signals at the motor’s terminals. Withthe motor’s nameplate data and these electricalcharacteristics, it is possible to quantiy manyenergy savings opportunities or a given motor.The undamental electrical characteristics includethe voltage, current, and requency data or eachphase. By collecting data on these undamentalcharacteristics, monitoring devices can provideadditional inormation needed to maximize energysavings including:
Power actorVoltage variationsVoltage imbalanceMotor load (based on current)Harmonic distortionFrequency deviations
Monitoring systems also have the ability to measureand record temperatures, number o starts, runningtime, and even vibration through the use o I/Omodules (topics not be covered in this article).
Power Factor Improvement 
The rst and most obvious opportunity or motorenergy savings is power actor correction. Mostmonitoring systems provide a wide range o datadirectly or indirectly associated with power actorincluding:
Displacement power actor (total and per phase)True power actor (total and per phase)Distortion power actor (total and per phase)Min/max power actorReactive power and energyReal power and energyApparent power and energy
To briefy discuss how power actor relates to energy savings, polyphase inductionmotors use current composed o both resistive and inductive components (See
Figure 2 
). The resistive component includes the load current and the loss current;the inductive component includes the magnetizing current and the leakagereactance. It is possible to cancel out the inductive current component bysupplying a “counter current” using a capacitor. The addition o a capacitor doesnot aect the magnetizing current or the leakage reactance o the motor, but itosets the inductive component at the point where the capacitor is installed. Asmore capacitance is added, the power actor angle,
, becomes smaller until aunity power actor is achieved (
= 0). At unity power actor, the electrical systemis at its optimum perormance or maximum power transer. Please note thatplacing excessive capacitance on the circuit will result in a leading power actor (
is negative in this case), which can lead to serious complications.
Example 1
A three-phase induction motor uses 200 Amps o current at a power actor o 0.78(
old = 38.73°).To ensure these values are correct,The reactive (inductive) component can be reduced by adding a capacitive load(generally a capacitor bank) near the motor. The capacitive load is also expressed
                                                                                                                          
Page 3A reduction in current (and energy) o approximately 18% is obtained bythe addition o capacitance to the system based solely on the power actorimprovement*. Each kVArh o reactive energy passing through your electricalsystem produces superfuous line losses and higher energy bills. Permanently-installed monitoring devices can quantiy these losses and oer additionalsavings opportunities within the acility.*
A word of caution
: Most industrial systems use motors with adjacent loadsthat are complex (e.g, non-linear loads such as adjustable speed drives).These complex load-types may react negatively to the addition o standardpower actor correction capacitors due to the capacitors’ interaction with otherrequencies produced by the complex loads. More inormation is available on theinternet regarding the interaction between complex-load types and power actorcorrection capacitors (also see displacement power actor versus true poweractor).
Voltage Imbalance 
Voltage imbalance (including single phasing) is both a leading cause o motorailures (See Motors, Part 1 Article) and a major contributor to energy losses inmotors. The subsequent current imbalances that result produce additional lossesin the motor. Monitoring systems are typically used to quantiy voltage imbalanceor power quality purposes, but may also be used to provide inormation on thelosses due to voltage imbalance at the terminals o three-phase induction motors.
Figure 4 
illustrates the eect o voltage imbalance on a motor’s eciency.
Example 2 
A 200 horsepower three-phase induction motor operates 4,500 hours eachyear at an average load o 80%. The motor’s eciency (
) is 93% at 80%load assuming a negligible voltage imbalance. However, it is discovered aterreviewing the monitoring system’s data that the average voltage imbalance to themotor over the course o year has been 3%. The acility’s average energy cost is$0.13/kWh and the average demand charge is $16/kW.The reduction in eciency (based on
Figure 4 
) is roughly 3.5% giving the neweciency (
) as 89.5% (93% - 3.5%). The losses due to the voltage imbalanceare determined as ollows:
                             
                                                                                                            
                                                                                                      
                             
                                                                                                            
as reactive in nature, but it uses the current 180° out o phase rom the inductiveload; thus, a canceling eect occurs (see
Figure 3 
). To bring the power actor rom0.78 (
= 38.73°) to 0.95 (
= 18.19°), a capacitor bank would have to besized such that its corresponding current would be:
     
                                                                                                      
To determine the total cost due to the voltage imbalance each year,

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