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Page 2are able to capture a great deal o inormation (bothreal-time and historical) over the motor’s lie.A undamental issue that can aect a motor’s energyusage is its suitability or the intended application.Motors are designed to operate most eciently attheir nameplate rating. Selecting the wrong motoror a particular application or operating the motoroutside its recommended parameters will decreasethe motor’s perormance, introducing additionallosses into the electrical system. Monitoring systemsare able to identiy many symptoms that result inreduced motor perormance including deviationsrom various nameplate parameters. For example,
illustrates several consequences thatoccur when the voltage deviates rom the motor’snameplate voltage rating.
Where to Look for Savings
There is a wealth o inormation about a motor’swellbeing buried in the characteristics o theelectrical signals at the motor’s terminals. Withthe motor’s nameplate data and these electricalcharacteristics, it is possible to quantiy manyenergy savings opportunities or a given motor.The undamental electrical characteristics includethe voltage, current, and requency data or eachphase. By collecting data on these undamentalcharacteristics, monitoring devices can provideadditional inormation needed to maximize energysavings including:
• Power actor• Voltage variations• Voltage imbalance• Motor load (based on current)• Harmonic distortion• Frequency deviations
Monitoring systems also have the ability to measureand record temperatures, number o starts, runningtime, and even vibration through the use o I/Omodules (topics not be covered in this article).
Power Factor Improvement
The rst and most obvious opportunity or motorenergy savings is power actor correction. Mostmonitoring systems provide a wide range o datadirectly or indirectly associated with power actorincluding:
• Displacement power actor (total and per phase)• True power actor (total and per phase)• Distortion power actor (total and per phase)• Min/max power actor• Reactive power and energy• Real power and energy• Apparent power and energy
To briefy discuss how power actor relates to energy savings, polyphase inductionmotors use current composed o both resistive and inductive components (See
). The resistive component includes the load current and the loss current;the inductive component includes the magnetizing current and the leakagereactance. It is possible to cancel out the inductive current component bysupplying a “counter current” using a capacitor. The addition o a capacitor doesnot aect the magnetizing current or the leakage reactance o the motor, but itosets the inductive component at the point where the capacitor is installed. Asmore capacitance is added, the power actor angle,
, becomes smaller until aunity power actor is achieved (
= 0). At unity power actor, the electrical systemis at its optimum perormance or maximum power transer. Please note thatplacing excessive capacitance on the circuit will result in a leading power actor (
is negative in this case), which can lead to serious complications.
A three-phase induction motor uses 200 Amps o current at a power actor o 0.78(
old = 38.73°).To ensure these values are correct,The reactive (inductive) component can be reduced by adding a capacitive load(generally a capacitor bank) near the motor. The capacitive load is also expressed