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Selection of Arrester

Selection of Arrester

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Published by: Michael Parohinog Gregas on Mar 29, 2012
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08/30/2012

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 ABB Surge Arresters Buyers GuideC-1Edition 4, 2003-10
Selection of arrester 
Simplied selection procedure
For a detailed Selection Guide, pleaserefer to ABB publications PTHVP/A 2300E and PTHVP/A 2310E.The catalogues list the availablestandard arresters from ABB of por-celain-housed arresters type EXLIMand silicone polymer-housed arresters,type PEXLIM.
 The selection is carried out in two majorsteps:• Matching the electrical characteristicsof the arresters to the system’s electri-cal demands• Matching the mechanical characte-ristics of the arresters to the system’smechanical and environmental require-ments. The nal selection is reected in the arres-ter type designation.
 Vocabulary 
U
m
Maximum system voltageU
c
Continuous operating voltageU
r
Rated voltage TOVTemporary overvoltage TTOV strength factorkEarth fault factorU
ps
Switching impulse protective levelU
pl
Lightning impulse protective levelU
ws
Switching impulse withstand levelU
wl
Lightning impulse withstand level
 
C-2ABB Surge Arresters Buyers GuideEdition 4, 2003-10
Selection of arrester 
Flowchart for simplied selectionof surge arresters
 
 ABB Surge Arresters Buyers GuideC-3Edition 4, 2003-10
Selection of arrester 
SystemEarthingFaultDura-tionSystem VoltageU
m
(kV)Min. Rated Voltage, Ur (kV)Effective
1 s
100
0.8 x U
m
Effective
1 s
123
0.72 x U
m
Non-effective
10 s
170
0.91 x U
m
0.93 x U
m
(EXLIM T)Non-effective
2 h
170
1.11 x U
m
Non-effective> 2 h
170
1.25 x U
m
Table 1.
 The table gives a minimum value of the arresterrated voltage (U
r
 ). In each case, choose the nexthigher standard rating as given in the catalogue.
Note: Do not select a lower value of U
r
than obtained as above unless theparameters are known more exactly;otherwise the arrester may be over-stressed by TOV.
Energy capability & linedischarge class
IEC classies arresters by their nominaldischarge current. For 10 and 20 kA arres-ters, they are also classied by energy capa-bility expressed as line discharge class (2to 5) veried in a long duration current testand a switching surge operating duty test.In the latter, the arrester is subjected to twoimpulses of a given amplitude and dura-tion after which it must be thermally stableagainst Uc. The ”class” gure roughly givesthe expected energy absorbed inkJ/kV (Ur ) per impulse. As seen in Table 2,the ABB arresters are tested for a muchhigher energy absorption capability.
 Arrester TypeLinedischargeclassEnergycapability(2 impulses)kJ/kV (Ur )Normalapplicationrange (Um )EXLIM R25.0
170 kV PEXLIM R25.1
170 kV EXLIM Q37.8170 - 420 kPEXLIM Q37.8170 - 420 kEXLIM P410.8362 - 550 kPEXLIM P412362 - 550 kHS PEXLIM P410.5362 - 550 kEXLIM T515.4420 - 800 kHS PEXLIM T515.4420 - 800 k
Table 2.
Energy capability of ABB arresters: The normalapplication range is only a guide. Arresters forhigher class may be required depending on thespecic parameters.
 Arrester rated voltage (U
 )
For each system voltage, the tables ”Gua-ranteed protective data” show a range of U
r
and maximum continuous operatingvoltages U
c
, all of which are capable of withstanding the actual continuous ope-rating voltage (U
ca
 ) with sufcient margin.Hence, the selection of U
r
is only a func-tion of the applied temporary overvolta-ges, TOV, (U
tov
 ), taking into account theiramplitudes and duration.  TOV are long-duration, mostly power-frequency (p.f.) or nearly p.f. voltages,with or without harmonics, generatedby system events. The arresters mustwithstand the heat energy generated bythem.Most commonly, a single or two-phaseearth fault leads to a TOV in the healthyphase(s) and also in the neutral of Y-connected transformers. Its amplitudeis determined by the system earthingconditions and its duration by the fault-clearance time.If the earth-fault factor, (k) = U
tov
 /U
ca
,is 1.4 or less, the system is consideredto be effectively earthed. Generally, thisimplies a solid connection of the neutral tothe earth grid. All other forms of earthingvia an impedance or a non-earthing of theneutral is considered as non-effective withk = 1.73For effectively earthed systems, the fault-clearance time is generally under 1 s but itcan vary widely among different systems. The catalogues list the values of TOV capability for 1 and 10 s duration aftera prior energy stress (as a conservativeapproach). For other durations or for spe-cic TOV conditions, follow the procedurehereunder:• Consider each TOV separately.• From the TOV curves, read off the TOV strength factor (T) for the time cor-responding to the fault-clearance time.• U
tov
 /T gives the min. value of U
r
forwithstanding this TOV. Choose the nexthigher standard rating.• The nal choice of U
r
will be the hig-hest of the U
r
values obtained from theabove calculations for each TOV.
Matching the electrical characteristics

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