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Table Of Contents

Muscle Mechanics: Lever Systems
Functions of the Nervous System
Divisions of the Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Motor Division of PNS
Histology of Nervous Tissue
Astrocytes
Microglia
Ependymal Cells
Oligodendrocytes
Satellite Cells and Schwann Cells
Neurons (Nerve Cells)
Cell Body (Perikaryon or Soma)
Processes
The Axon
Axons: Function
Myelin Sheath
Myelin Sheaths in the PNS
Unmyelinated Axons
Myelin Sheaths in the CNS
White Matter and Gray Matter
Structural Classification of Neurons
Functional Classification of Neurons
Neuron Function
Principles of Electricity
Definitions
Role of Membrane Ion Channels
Gated Channels
Resting Membrane Potential (Vr)
Resting Membrane Potential
Membrane Potentials That Act as Signals
Changes in Membrane Potential
Action Potential (AP)
Generation of an Action Potential
Properties of Gated Channels
Depolarizing Phase
Repolarizing Phase
Hyperpolarization
Role of the Sodium-Potassium Pump
Propagation of an Action Potential
Coding for Stimulus Intensity
Absolute Refractory Period
Relative Refractory Period
Conduction Velocity
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
Multiple Sclerosis: Treatment
Nerve Fiber Classification
The Synapse
Types of Synapses
Electrical Synapses
Chemical Synapses
Synaptic Cleft
Information Transfer
Excitatory Synapses and EPSPs
Inhibitory Synapses and IPSPs
Integration: Summation
Integration: Synaptic Potentiation
Integration: Presynaptic Inhibition
Neurotransmitters
Functional Classification of Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitter Actions
Neurotransmitter Receptors
Channel-Linked (Ionotropic) Receptors
G Protein-Linked (Metabotropic) Receptors
G Protein-Linked Receptors: Mechanism
Developmental Aspects of Neurons
Axonal Growth
Cell Death
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Effect of Space Restriction on Brain Development
Regions and Organization of the CNS
Ventricles of the Brain
Cerebral Hemispheres
Cerebral Cortex
Functional Areas of the Cerebral Cortex
Motor Areas
Primary Motor Cortex
Premotor Cortex
Broca’s Area
Frontal Eye Field
Sensory Areas
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
Somatosensory Association Cortex
Visual Areas
Auditory Areas
OIfactory Cortex
Gustatory Cortex
Visceral Sensory Area
Vestibular Cortex
Multimodal Association Areas
Anterior Association Area (Prefrontal Cortex)
Posterior Association Area
Limbic Association Area
Lateralization of Cortical Function
Cerebral White Matter
Basal Nuclei (Ganglia)
Functions of Basal Nuclei
Diencephalon
Thalamic Function
Hypothalamus
Hypothalamic Function
Epithalamus
Brain Stem
Midbrain
Midbrain Nuclei
Pons
Medulla Oblongata
The Cerebellum
Anatomy of the Cerebellum
Cerebellar Peduncles
Cerebellar Processing for Motor Activity
Brain Waves: State of the Brain
Epilepsy
Epileptic Seizures
Control of Epilepsy
Consciousness
Sleep
Sleep Patterns
Importance of Sleep
Sleep Disorders
Language
Memory
Transfer from STM to LTM
Categories of Memory
Brain Structures Involved in Declarative Memory
Brain Structures Involved in Nondeclarative Memory
Molecular Basis of Memory
Protection of the Brain
Meninges
Dura Mater
Arachnoid Mater
Pia Mater
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Choroid Plexuses
Blood-Brain Barrier
Blood-Brain Barrier: Functions
Homeostatic Imbalances of the Brain
The Spinal Cord: Embryonic Development
Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord: Protection
Cross-Sectional Anatomy
Gray Matter
White Matter
Pathway Generalizations
Ascending Pathways
Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscal Pathways
Anterolateral Pathways
Spinocerebellar Tracts
Descending Pathways and Tracts
The Direct (Pyramidal) System
Indirect (Extrapyramidal) System
Spinal Cord Trauma
Poliomyelitis
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Developmental Aspects of the CNS
Sensory Receptors
Classification of Receptors
Classification by Stimulus Type
Classification by Location
Classification by Structural Complexity
Unencapsulated Dendritic Endings
Encapsulated Dendritic Endings
From Sensation to Perception
Sensory Integration
Processing at the Receptor Level
Adaptation of Sensory Receptors
Processing at the Circuit Level
Processing at the Perceptual Level
Main Aspects of Sensory Perception
Perception of Pain
Structure of a Nerve
Classification of Nerves
Ganglia
Regeneration of Nerve Fibers
Levels of Motor Control
Segmental Level
Projection Level
Precommand Level
Reflexes
Reflex Arc
Spinal Reflexes
Stretch and Golgi Tendon Reflexes
Muscle Spindles
Stretch Reflexes
Golgi Tendon Reflexes
Flexor and Crossed-Extensor Reflexes
Superficial Reflexes
Developmental Aspects of the PNS
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A&P Module 4

A&P Module 4

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Published by Mary Gawne Carolino

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Published by: Mary Gawne Carolino on Mar 29, 2012
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