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Table Of Contents

1.1OZONE IN NATURE
1.2THE OZONE MOLECULE
2.1OXIDATION–REDUCTION REACTIONS
2.2CYCLOADDITION REACTIONS
2.3ELECTROPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS
2.4NUCLEOPHILIC REACTIONS
2.5INDIRECT REACTIONS OF OZONE
2.5.1THE OZONE DECOMPOSITION REACTION
References
3.1HOMOGENEOUS OZONATION KINETICS
3.1.1BATCH REACTOR KINETICS
3.1.2FLOW REACTOR KINETICS
3.1.3INFLUENCE OF PH ON DIRECT OZONE RATE CONSTANTS
3.1.4DETERMINATION OF THE STOICHIOMETRY
4.1.1THE FILM THEORY
4.1.2SURFACE RENEWAL THEORIES
4.2CHEMICAL ABSORPTION
4.2.1FILM THEORY
4.2.1.1Irreversible First-Order or Pseudo First-Order Reactions
4.2.1.2Irreversible Second-Order Reactions
4.2.1.3Series-Parallel Reactions
4.2.2DANCKWERTS SURFACE RENEWAL THEORY
4.2.2.1First-Order or Pseudo First-Order Reactions
4.2.2.2Irreversible Second-Order Reactions
4.2.2.3Series-Parallel Reactions
4.2.3INFLUENCE OF GAS PHASE RESISTANCE
4.2.3.1Slow Kinetic Regime
4.2.3.2Fast Kinetic Regime
4.2.4DIFFUSION AND REACTION TIMES
5.1DETERMINATION OF OZONE PROPERTIES IN WATER
5.1.1DIFFUSIVITY
5.1.2OZONE SOLUBILITY: THE OZONE–WATER EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEM
5.2KINETIC REGIMES OF THE OZONE DECOMPOSITION REACTION
5.3.2.1The Ozone Solubility
5.3.3INSTANTANEOUS KINETIC REGIME
5.3.4FAST KINETIC REGIME
5.3.5MODERATE KINETIC REGIME
5.3.5.1Case of No Dissolved Ozone
5.3.6SLOW KINETIC REGIME
5.3.6.1The Slow Diffusional Kinetic Regime
5.3.6.2Very Slow Kinetic Regime
5.5COMPARISON BETWEEN ABSORPTION THEORIES IN OZONATION REACTIONS
6.1REACTIVITY OF OZONE IN WASTEWATER
6.2CRITICAL CONCENTRATION OF WASTEWATER
6.3CHARACTERIZATION OF WASTEWATER
6.3.1THE CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
6.3.2THE BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
6.3.3TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON
6.3.4ABSORPTIVITY AT 254 NM (A254)
6.3.5MEAN OXIDATION NUMBER OF CARBON
6.4IMPORTANCE OF pH IN WASTEWATER OZONATION
6.5CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
6.5.1BIODEGRADABILITY
6.5.2SLUDGE SETTLING
6.5.3SLUDGE PRODUCTION
6.6KINETIC STUDY OF THE OZONATION OF WASTEWATERS
6.6.3.1Fast Kinetic Regime (High COD)*
6.6.3.2Slow Kinetic Regime (Low COD)*
7.1.1APPLICATION OF DIFFUSION AND REACTION TIME CONCEPTS
7.2RELATIVE RATES OF THE OXIDATION OF A GIVEN COMPOUND*
7.3KINETIC PARAMETERS
7.3.1THE OZONE DECOMPOSITION RATE CONSTANT
7.3.1.1Influence of Alkalinity
7.3.2.1The Absolute Method
7.3.2.2The Competitive Method
7.4CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL WATERS REGARDING OZONE REACTIVITY
7.4.1DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON, PH, AND ALKALINITY
7.4.2THE OXIDATION–COMPETITION VALUE
7.4.3THE RCT CONCEPT
8.1THE KINETIC REGIME OF THE O3/H2O2 PROCESS
8.1.1SLOW KINETIC REGIME
8.1.2FAST-MODERATE KINETIC REGIME
8.1.3CRITICAL HYDROGEN PEROXIDE CONCENTRATION
8.2DETERMINATION OF KINETIC PARAMETERS
8.2.1THE ABSOLUTE METHOD
8.2.2THE COMPETITIVE METHOD
OF FREE RADICAL OZONE DECOMPOSITION
8.3THE OZONE/HYDROGEN PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS
8.4THE COMPETITION OF THE DIRECT REACTION
8.4.3RELATIVE RATES OF THE OXIDATION OF A GIVEN COMPOUND*
9.1.1THE MOLAR ABSORPTIVITY
9.1.2THE QUANTUM YIELD
9.1.3KINETIC EQUATIONS FOR THE DIRECT PHOTOLYSIS PROCESS
9.1.4.1The Absolute Method
9.1.4.2The Competitive Method
9.1.5QUANTUM YIELD FOR OZONE PHOTOLYSIS
9.1.5.1The Ozone Quantum Yield in the Gas Phase
9.1.5.2The Ozone Quantum Yield in Water
9.2KINETICS OF THE UV/H2O2 SYSTEM
9.2.1DETERMINATION OF KINETIC PARAMETERS
9.2.1.1The Absolute Method
9.2.1.2The Competitive Method
9.3.2.3Weak UV Absorption
9.3.3.2Weak UV Absorption
10.1FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS–LIQUID–SOLID CATALYTIC REACTION KINETICS
10.1.1SLOW KINETIC REGIME
10.1.2FAST KINETIC REGIME OR EXTERNAL DIFFUSION KINETIC REGIME
10.1.3INTERNAL DIFFUSION KINETIC REGIME
10.1.5CRITERIA FOR KINETIC REGIMES
10.3.1THE SLOW KINETIC REGIME
10.3.2EXTERNAL MASS TRANSFER KINETIC REGIME
10.3.2.1Catalyst in Powder Form
10.3.2.2Catalyst in Pellet Form
10.3.3INTERNAL DIFFUSION KINETIC REGIME
10.4KINETICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR PHOTOCATALYTIC PROCESSES
10.4.1MECHANISM OF TIO2 SEMICONDUCTOR PHOTOCATALYSIS
10.4.3MECHANISM AND KINETICS OF PHOTOCATALYTIC OZONATION
11.1CASE OF SLOW KINETIC REGIME OF OZONE ABSORPTION
11.2CASE OF FAST KINETIC REGIME OF OZONE ABSORPTION
11.4TIME REGIMES IN OZONATION
11.5INFLUENCE OF THE TYPE OF WATER AND GAS FLOWS
11.6MATHEMATICAL MODELS
11.6.1SLOW KINETIC REGIME
11.6.1.1Both Gas and Water Phases in Perfect Mixing Flow
11.6.1.2Both Gas and Water Phases in Plug Flow
11.6.2FAST KINETIC REGIME
11.6.2.1Both the Water and Gas Phases in Perfect Mixing
11.6.2.3Both the Gas and Water Phases in Plug Flow
11.6.3THE MODERATE KINETIC REGIME: A GENERAL CASE
11.7EXAMPLES OF KINETIC MODELING FOR MODEL COMPOUNDS
11.8KINETIC MODELING OF WASTEWATER OZONATION
11.8.1CASE OF SLOW KINETIC REGIME: WASTEWATER WITH LOW COD
11.8.2CASE OF FAST KINETIC REGIME: WASTEWATER WITH HIGH COD
11.8.3A GENERAL CASE OF WASTEWATER OZONATION KINETIC MODEL
Appendices
A1.1Perfectly Mixed Reactor
A1.2Plug Flow Reactor
A2.1Hyperbolic Functions
A2.2The Error Function
A3.1Nonideal Flow Study
A3.1.1Fundamentals of RTD Function
A3.1.1.1Determination of the E Function
A3.1.1.2Moments of the RTD
A3.2Some Fluid Flow Models
A3.2.1The Perfectly Mixed Tanks in Series Model
A3.2.2The Axial Dispersion Model
A3.3Ozone Gas as a Tracer
A4.1Determination of Intensity of Incident Radiation
A4.2Determination of the Effective Path of Radiation
INDEX
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[LIkin]Beltran,F.; Ozone Reaction Kinetics for Water and Waste Water Systems; 2005 Lewis, CRC

[LIkin]Beltran,F.; Ozone Reaction Kinetics for Water and Waste Water Systems; 2005 Lewis, CRC

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Published by: Avram Claudia on Mar 29, 2012
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