Abhijit Kar Gupta
, Phys. Dept, Panskura Banamali College, WB, India, e-mail: email@example.com
Thus the sum of the probabilities of all the events is = 1. This is also called Normalization.
For a dice throw, among 6 different outcomes, the probability of occurring one, is61
, the probability of occurrence of two is61
and so on. Thus
p p p p p p
A box contains 4 identical balls, one red and three blue. What is the probability of drawing a red ball from the box?
If two random events A and B do not occur at the same time, that is, either A occurs or Band one is not dependent on other, they are called disjoint (mutually exclusive) events.
Addition of Probabilities:
Suppose in a given experiment, a random event A occurs with probability)(
andanother with probability)(
. If the two events are disjoint or mutually exclusive, thenthe joint probability of the two events, that is, the probability that either the event A or Bwill take place, is given by
(A or B) = P(A) + P(B).Two events are
when no other events occur other than these. In that caseP(A) + P(B) = 1. In this case it is said that the events A and B form a
.If the random events A, B, C, D form a complete group then P(A)+P(B)+P(C)+P(D)=1.
In the case of coin tossing, P(H or T) = P(H) + P(T) = ½ + ½ =1.In the case of Dice throwing, the probability of occurring ‘six’ or ‘one’,P(6 or 1) = P(6) + P(1) =1/6 + 1/6 = 2/6.
Two fair dice are
thrown. What will be the probability that the total score iseither 10 or each score on each dice is more than 4?The event A: (5,5), (4,6), (6,4)
. The event B: (5,5), (5,6), (6,5), (6,6)
P(A or B) =61366
. However, P(A) + P(B) =36791121
. ThusP(A or B)
P(A) + P(B). The events A and B are
not mutually exclusive