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Paper-1 Opportunistic Spectrum Access Decision Operation in Cognitive Radio Femtocell Networks using Fuzzy Logic System

Paper-1 Opportunistic Spectrum Access Decision Operation in Cognitive Radio Femtocell Networks using Fuzzy Logic System

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Published by: Rachel Wheeler on Mar 29, 2012
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International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, March 2012 Vol. 3, No. 3
 
4
Opportunistic Spectrum Access Decision Operation in Cognitive RadioFemtocell Networks using Fuzzy Logic System
Yee Ming Chen
1
Pei-San Tsai
2
 
Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Yuan Ze University135 Yuan-Tung Rd., Chung-Li, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan, ROC.
1
2
s957138@mail.yzu.edu.tw
 
Abstract
The efficient use of available licensed spectrum is becoming more and more critical with increasing demandand usage of the radio spectrum. Both cognitive radio and femtocell have been considered as promisingtechniques in wireless networks. In this paper, we have studied the issues of better utilization of the spectrum fora communication system that consists of primary networks (licensed or primary users) and a femtocell-basedheterogeneous cognitive radio network. The opportunistic spectrum access has become the most viable approachto achieve near-optimal spectrum utilization by allowing femtocell users (unlicensed or secondary users)to senseand access available spectrum opportunistically. Opportunistic spectrum access approach is enabled by cognitiveradios which are able to sense the unused spectrum and adapt their operating characteristics to the real-timeenvironment. However, a naive spectrum access for secondary users can make spectrum utilization inefficientand increase interference to adjacent users. In this paper, we propose a scheme using Fuzzy Logic System (FLS)to control the spectrum access. Four descriptors are used: spectrum utilization efficiency of the secondary user,its degree of mobility, its signal strength and its distance to the primary user. The linguistic knowledge of spectrum access based on these four descriptors is obtained from a group of network experts. 81 fuzzy rules areset up based on this linguistic knowledge. The output of the FLS provide the availability of accessing spectrumband for secondary users and the user with the greatest availability will be assigned the spectrum band..
Keywords: O
pportunistic spectrum access, Cognitive radio networks, Fuzzy decision making.
1. Introduction
Recent studies suggested efficient use of licensed spectrum. One of the ways is the use of “Cognitive Radio(CR)”. A CR employs software to measure unused portions of the existing wireless spectrum and adapts theradio's operating characteristics to operate in these unused portions in a manner that limits interference withother devices [1]. The already licensed spectrum can be used more efficiently by introducing soft computing, thedecision making to be specific, in the radio. This enables the radio to learn from its environment, consideringcertain parameters. Based on this knowledge the radio can actively exploit the possible empty frequencies in thelicensed band of the spectrum that can then be assigned to other users in such a way that they don’t cause anyinterference to the frequency band that is already in use. This makes the efficient usage of the available licensedspectrum possible.Femtocells provide another way to deal with the challenge of quickly increasing user requirements onmobile broadband [2]. Femtocells are formed by small-size, low-power base stations that are typically installedby cellular users at their homes. Femtocell base stations (FBS) use the existing broadband internet connections(e.g., cable, DSL) as backhaul. The air interfaces of femtocells and macrocells are exactly the same, whichresults in a seamless network coverage. However, this in return creates severe interference among femtocell andmacrocell users. On the other hand, femtocell
 
has been considered as a promising technique, and has beenintegrated in current and future radio access networks. Combining cognitive radio with femtocell can furtherimprove the system performance [3]. In [4], a femtocell-based cognitive radio architecture is designed to enablemulti-tiered opportunistic access in wireless networks. Although some works have been done for heterogeneouscognitive radio networks with femtocells, most of previous works are focused on spectrum sharing andinterference avoidance. Femtocells accessing unlicensed bands have to coexist with a large number of incumbentdevices like WiMAX and Bluetooth in the unlicensed spectrum. To study the opportunistic spectrum accessbetween secondary (femtocell) users and primary (macrocell) users is chosen in this paper.Our work is related to
 
International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, March 2012 Vol. 3, No. 3
 
5a few recent papers [5,6], which apply cognitive technology to femtocells. In these papers, macrocells are theprimary users in the licensed cellular band while femtocells are the secondary users. Femto BSs use cognitivetechnology to access the radio resources that are not utilized by the macrocell. In this paper, our work is differentfrom previous works. We focus on the decision making aspect of spectrum access operate in cellular licensedspectrum. In this scope, a decision making process in a femtocell-based heterogeneous cognitive radio network is analyzed using fuzzy logic system(FLS), in which secondary user can use the spectrum effectively. Thecontents of the paper are as follows: Section 2 gives the background of the present technology of cgnitive rdio;Section 3 describes some concepts about Fuzzy Logic System show the proposed model of our study. Section 4gives the simulation results. Section 5 presents the conclusions.
2. Background of the Present Work
The cognitive radio receives the RF environment at its receiver and involves itself in a decision makingprocess to accommodate a new user requesting the spectrum allocation. This requires a decision makingconsidering certain factors, such as the secondary user’s requirements as parameters like, its modulation scheme,channel coding, data rate and power consumption etc. This enables the decision making process to make acomparison between the user’s specifications against the available pool of the solutions received from the RFenvironment. Thus, cognitive radio employs dynamic spectrum access (DSA) all available frequency bandsincluding low frequency TV bands and other vacant frequency bands can be put to efficient use and local areanetwork overloading can be avoided as cognitive radio adapts to unusual situations using flexible spectrumaccess. This increases data transfer speed. The secondary users (SU)opportunistically utilize these holes forcommunication without causing interference to primary users (PU)as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Opportunistic spectrum usage in cognitive radio
The decision making process is to assign appropriate resources to SUs only as long as they are needed for ageographically bounded region, that is, a personal, local, regional, or global cell. For efficient use of thespectrum, one must detect the spectrum holes(unused spectrum). The main function of cognitive user is sense,manage, mobile, and share the spectrum. It is difficult to search and detect the unused channels. The SU has touse a strategy to sense and manage the unused spectrum (channels). Detecting spectrum holes without any errors(false alarms) and then efficiently allocating the unused spectrum is a critical issue. Once the unused spectrum isdetected, the cognitive user decides to transmit on a selected high utility channel based on detection analysis(outcome). Trusting the detector, minimizing the interferences, and avoid the collisions are part of the resource(spectrum) allocation problems. If the probability of detection accuracy is extremely high, then the channel willbe allocated using the channel allocation policies. The channel allocation policy must avoid the collisions andinterferences.The secondary users (cognitive users) adopt several methodologies to identify spectrum holes, learn fromcurrent communication environment, and exploit the opportunities to grab the spectrum without disturbing thePUs. This means that the cognitive users can create flexible access to the spectrum. They can partition thespectrum into a large number of orthogonal channels and complete the transmission simultaneously with aflexible set of channels. Such partition can be designed using a distributed approach for DSA. Cognitive Radioadopts the opportunistic spectrum sharing approach, which allows the SUs to coexist with PUs who are thelegacy spectrum holders. PUs has provision to access communication channels at any time. SUs need to sensethe radio environment, and opportunistically utilize available spectrum. Meanwhile, they need to adapt to localbehaviors of PUs and vacate the spectrum immediately when the presence of primary users is detected. In [7],the authors proposed the concept of primary exclusive region and formulated the relationship between the outageprobability and primary exclusive region. Cho and Andrews [8] proposed the concept of interference radius and
 
International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, March 2012 Vol. 3, No. 3
 
6discussed the relationship between the interference and relative distance. A probability-based power controlstrategy for dynamic spectrum access was proposed in [9]. In that paper, the CR link utilizes spectrum only whenit is not utilized by the PU link. One of the ways is the use of “Cognitive Radio”, according to the decisionmaking architecture that can be used more efficiently by introducing artificial intelligence. This enables the radioto learn from its environment, considering certain parameters. Based on this knowledge the radio can activelyexploit the possible empty frequencies in the licensed band of the spectrum that can then be assigned to otherprocesses in such a way that they don’t cause any interference to the frequency band that is already in use. Thismakes the efficient usage of the available licensed spectrum possible.The design of cognitive radio is very challenging issue due to complexity, modularity, informationimprecision and interpretability. Fuzzy logic system (FLS) is chosen for the decision making because it is verymuch suited for non linear,imprecision and multivalued problems as it is capable of making real time decisions.This research will focus on the fuzzy decision making to opportunistically utilize spectrum in a femtocell-basedheterogeneous cognitive radio network.
2.1 Fuzzy Logic System
Fuzzy logic is based on fuzzy set theory, in which every object has a grade of membership in various sets.Inputs are mapped to membership functions or sets (fuzzification process). Knowledge of a restricted domain iscaptured in the form of linguistic rules which is represented by a compact set of fuzzy IF-THEN rules consistingof membership functions in the “IF” part. As a last step, the required output is defuzzified (to numerical) fromthe “THEN” part of the rules in order to produce the consequent. An important advantage of fuzzy logic is that itcan be applied transparently in combination with other well-known decision knowledge. Moreover, properdefinition of the linguistic rules can be used to reduce signaling overhead by avoiding the ping-pongphenomenon. Cognitive radio-related decision making and resource allocation based on fuzzy logic approacheshave been proposed in various works, such as [10,11], with promising results.
3. Proposed Fuzzy Logic System and its Scheme
As mentioned before, the fuzzy logic is composed of membership functions for each the input/outputvariables and fuzzy values. The proposed FLS consists of four modules: a fuzzy rule base, a fuzzy inferenceengine and a fuzzification /defuzzification module. A FLS scheme operates by repeating a cycle of five stepsimplemented by these four modules. First, measurements are taken of all variables that represent relevantconditions of the controlled process. Next, these measurements are converted into appropriate fuzzy sets toexpress measurement uncertainties. This step is called fuzzification. The fuzzified measurements are then usedby the inference engine to evaluate control rules stored in the fuzzy rule base. The reasoning (Inference) is toselect the most appropriate rule at a certain condition. The result of this evaluation is a fuzzy set (or several fuzzysets) defined on the universe of discourse of possible actions. This fuzzy set is the converted, in the final step of the cycle, into a crisp value (or a vector of values). This conversion is called defuzzification. The defuzzifiedvalues represent actions taken by the FLS in individual control cycles.The fuzzy outputs for all rules are finally aggregated to one fuzzy set. To obtain a crisp decision from thisfuzzy output, we have to defuzzify the fuzzy set, or the set of singletons. Therefore we have to choose onerepresentative value as the final output. Rules can be solved in parallel style. The results of all the rules that havefired are "defuzzified" to a crisp value by "centroid" method, in which the "center of mass" of the result providesthe crisp value. Since we use a single consequent for each rule to form a rule base, we averaged the centroids of all the responses for each rule. Doing this leads to rules that have the following form.
 IF
spectrum efficiency to be utilized by the secondary user
 E 
su
is
)(
e
 E 
µ 
and signal strength
SS
su
is
)(
s
SS
µ 
andvelocity
is
)(
v
µ 
and distance
 D
to the primary user is
)(
 D
µ 
,
THEN 
the spectrum availability
 A
that thissecondary user is chosen to access the available spectrum is
)(
a
 A
µ 
 
3.1 Design the Fuzzy Logic System
In the proposed model of the study for selecting the best suitable secondary user to access the spectrum, thedetermining parameters which are considered are:
 spectrum efficiency
to be utilized by the secondary user ,
velocity
of the secondary user,
 distance
of the secondary user from the primary user , and
 signal strength
. Wedesign the fuzzy logic system to solve the opportunistic spectrum access problem in a femtocell-basedheterogeneous cognitive radio network( see figure 2). In the femtocell-based heterogeneous cognitive radio

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