International Journal of Computational Intelligence and Information Security, March 2012 Vol. 3, No. 3
6discussed the relationship between the interference and relative distance. A probability-based power controlstrategy for dynamic spectrum access was proposed in . In that paper, the CR link utilizes spectrum only whenit is not utilized by the PU link. One of the ways is the use of “Cognitive Radio”, according to the decisionmaking architecture that can be used more efficiently by introducing artificial intelligence. This enables the radioto learn from its environment, considering certain parameters. Based on this knowledge the radio can activelyexploit the possible empty frequencies in the licensed band of the spectrum that can then be assigned to otherprocesses in such a way that they don’t cause any interference to the frequency band that is already in use. Thismakes the efficient usage of the available licensed spectrum possible.The design of cognitive radio is very challenging issue due to complexity, modularity, informationimprecision and interpretability. Fuzzy logic system (FLS) is chosen for the decision making because it is verymuch suited for non linear,imprecision and multivalued problems as it is capable of making real time decisions.This research will focus on the fuzzy decision making to opportunistically utilize spectrum in a femtocell-basedheterogeneous cognitive radio network.
2.1 Fuzzy Logic System
Fuzzy logic is based on fuzzy set theory, in which every object has a grade of membership in various sets.Inputs are mapped to membership functions or sets (fuzzification process). Knowledge of a restricted domain iscaptured in the form of linguistic rules which is represented by a compact set of fuzzy IF-THEN rules consistingof membership functions in the “IF” part. As a last step, the required output is defuzzified (to numerical) fromthe “THEN” part of the rules in order to produce the consequent. An important advantage of fuzzy logic is that itcan be applied transparently in combination with other well-known decision knowledge. Moreover, properdefinition of the linguistic rules can be used to reduce signaling overhead by avoiding the ping-pongphenomenon. Cognitive radio-related decision making and resource allocation based on fuzzy logic approacheshave been proposed in various works, such as [10,11], with promising results.
3. Proposed Fuzzy Logic System and its Scheme
As mentioned before, the fuzzy logic is composed of membership functions for each the input/outputvariables and fuzzy values. The proposed FLS consists of four modules: a fuzzy rule base, a fuzzy inferenceengine and a fuzzification /defuzzification module. A FLS scheme operates by repeating a cycle of five stepsimplemented by these four modules. First, measurements are taken of all variables that represent relevantconditions of the controlled process. Next, these measurements are converted into appropriate fuzzy sets toexpress measurement uncertainties. This step is called fuzzification. The fuzzified measurements are then usedby the inference engine to evaluate control rules stored in the fuzzy rule base. The reasoning (Inference) is toselect the most appropriate rule at a certain condition. The result of this evaluation is a fuzzy set (or several fuzzysets) defined on the universe of discourse of possible actions. This fuzzy set is the converted, in the final step of the cycle, into a crisp value (or a vector of values). This conversion is called defuzzification. The defuzzifiedvalues represent actions taken by the FLS in individual control cycles.The fuzzy outputs for all rules are finally aggregated to one fuzzy set. To obtain a crisp decision from thisfuzzy output, we have to defuzzify the fuzzy set, or the set of singletons. Therefore we have to choose onerepresentative value as the final output. Rules can be solved in parallel style. The results of all the rules that havefired are "defuzzified" to a crisp value by "centroid" method, in which the "center of mass" of the result providesthe crisp value. Since we use a single consequent for each rule to form a rule base, we averaged the centroids of all the responses for each rule. Doing this leads to rules that have the following form.
spectrum efficiency to be utilized by the secondary user
and signal strength
to the primary user is
the spectrum availability
that thissecondary user is chosen to access the available spectrum is
3.1 Design the Fuzzy Logic System
In the proposed model of the study for selecting the best suitable secondary user to access the spectrum, thedetermining parameters which are considered are:
to be utilized by the secondary user ,
of the secondary user,
of the secondary user from the primary user , and
. Wedesign the fuzzy logic system to solve the opportunistic spectrum access problem in a femtocell-basedheterogeneous cognitive radio network( see figure 2). In the femtocell-based heterogeneous cognitive radio