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geothermal energy- overview and matlab simulation

geothermal energy- overview and matlab simulation

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Published by Sindhu Bijjal
final semester seminar report on geothermal energy
final semester seminar report on geothermal energy

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Published by: Sindhu Bijjal on Mar 30, 2012
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04/24/2014

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Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum
K.L.E Society’s
 
B. V. Bhoomaraddi College of Engineering & TechnologyHubli-580031Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
VIII sem seminar report on
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY- OVERVIEW AND SIMULATION IN MATLAB
Member
 Sindhu Bijjal - 2BV08EE048Batch
 –
vFaculty
 –
Varsha Tatti
 
 
INTRODUCTIONThe word geothermal comes from the Greek words geo (earth) and therme (heat). Geothermalenergy is heat from within the earth. Georthemal is the thermal energy contained in the rock and fluid in
the earth’s crust. It is almost 4,000 miles from the surface of the earth to its center.
The outer layer of theearth, the crust, is 35 miles thick and insulates the surface from the hot interiorMost of the renewable energy sources presently used and under development in the world are inone way or another connected to the energy that the Earth is receiving from the Sun (hydro, biomass,solar- and wind energy). Most of the energy resources used in the world at present (86%) are comingfrom finite energy sources embedded in the crust of the Earth (oil, gas, coal, and uranium). Only oneenergy resource of the crust is renewable, namely geothermal energy. The source of geothermal energy isthe continuous energy of the Earth towards its flux flowing from the interior
surface.
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY GENERATIONI
n 1904, Italy’s Prince Piero Ginori Conti became the first person to use thermal energy from
within the earth to turn on the lights. A clean, base load source of power, geothermal offers consistentelectricity production nearly 24 hours a day with little to no emissions. Today, more than 10.7 gigawatts(GW) of geothermal power capacity is online across 26 countries with a combined output of approximately 67 terawatt hours (TWh) of electricity. Currently, the United States is the globalgeothermal leader with 3,086 megawatt (MW) of installed capacity. Seven countries account for 88% of global capacity, and among countries utilizing geothermal resources, seven obtain 10-30% of their totalelectricity supply from domestic geothermal sources
.
 
Geothermal power can play a fairly significant role in the energy balance of some areas of theworld [9]. For non-electric applications of geothermal energy, the year 2000 worldwide figures show aninstalled capacity (15,145 MWt) and energy use (190,699 TJ/yr) for this renewable source [4]. The mostcommon non-electric use worldwide (in terms of installed capacity) is for heat pumps (34.80%) followedby bathing (26.20%), space heating (21.62%), greenhouses (8.22%), aquaculture (3.93%), and industrialprocesses (3.13%).FORMATION OF GEO-THERMAL ENERGYGeothermal energy is generat
ed in the earth’s core, almost
4,000 miles beneath the earth
’s
surface. The double-layered core is made up of very hot magma (melted rock) surrounding a solidironouter core. Very high temperatures are continuously produced inside the earth in the rocks by theslow decay of radioactive particles. Surrounding the outer coreis the mantle, made of magma and rock. The outermost layer of the earth, the land that forms the continents and ocean floors, iscalled the crust. The crust is not a solid piece, like the shell of an egg, but is broken into pieces called plates. Magma comesclose to the
earth’s
surface near the edges of these plates. This iswherev olcanoes occur. The lava that erupts from volcanoes ispartly magma. Deep underground, the rocks and water absorbthe heat from this magma. This water is drawn out by diggingwells and used for electricity generation.FINDING GEOTHERMAL ENERGYSome visible features of geothermal energy are volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, and fumaroles.But these geothermal resources cannot be seen. They are deep underground. There may be no clues aboveground that a geothermal reservoir is present below.The most active geothermal resources are usually found along major plate boundaries whereearthquakes and volcanoes are concentrated.Most of the geothermal activity in the worldoccurs in an area called the Ring of Firewhich is along the border area of PacificOcean.
 
Geologists use different methods tofind geothermal reservoirs. The only way tobe sure there is a reservoir is to drill a welland test the temperature deep underground.
Fig 3: cross section of geothermal site

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