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Chapter 16 Shielding Calculation Helvecio-Bw

Chapter 16 Shielding Calculation Helvecio-Bw

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Published by Eurekha Mohan
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Published by: Eurekha Mohan on Mar 30, 2012
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1
Shielding CalculationTechniques
Objective
Ø
Design of shield with adequate attenuation toachieve the required (or acceptable) doseequivalent (rate) limitation (or ALARA)
Shielding Issues
Ø
Calculation Methods
Ø
Linac Rooms
v
Barrier Materials
v
Primary, scatter and leakage Barriers
v
Maze Design
v
Neutron Shielding
Ø
Simulator (x-ray and CT)
Ø
HDR
Ø
BrachytherapyRooms
Ø
Special Topics
Ø
Reports
Factors do be considering in shieldingdesign
Ø
ALARA
Ø
Available space
Ø
Constructions techniques
Ø
Regulatory limits (or constraints)
Ø
Shielding materials
Ø
Source term
Ø
Trends in regulatory limits with times
Calculation Method
Ø
We calculate the dose rate at a certain distance from thesource due to primary, scattered and leakage radiationand from it derive how many TVL’swe need to bring theradiation levels to the dose constraints (occupational orpublic).[if the attenuation curves are not exponential, useattenuation curves]
Ø
bibliography
v
NCRP Report
§
No. 49, for accelerators operating at 10 MV or less
§
No. 51 (144), for higher energy machines
v
Patton H. McGinley: Shielding Techniques for Radiation OncologyFacilities. Medical Physics Publishing, Madison, Wisconsin.
Conventional Primary Barrier
P
WU
d
pri
 
2
Patient Scatter
P1
W
d
sec
d
sec
P2
Leakage
PWd
l
IMRT Maze and Door
PWd
m
L
2
@
 priunshielded  pri
WU H  Rate Dose
==
Primary Barrier: Source term
Ø
What is the Dose Rate at a certain distance from thesource?
v
W –Workload = average dose per week at one meterfrom the target (source)
v
U Use Factor (orientation) = average fraction of timeper week that the primary beam falls on the barrier
v
T –Occupancy Factor = fraction of the time that aperson will be in the area outside of that barrier (themost exposed individual)
v
d
pri
 –distance from source to the point (zone toprotect) where person will be standing
ØØ
Calculate theCalculate thetransmission of the Barriertransmission of the Barrier((BB
xx
ororTT
xx
))to bring the Dose Rate to constraint Levelsto bring the Dose Rate to constraint Levels
vv
HH
shieldedshielded
= dose per week required outside of= dose per week required outside ofthe protection barrierthe protection barrier
ØØ
Do the calculation for each primary barrierDo the calculation for each primary barrier
WU H  H  H  B
primunshielded shielded  x
2
==
Primary Barrier
Regulatoryconstraint
 
Secondary Barrier
Ø
Transmission for Secondary Barriers
v
Consider
§
Scatter from Patient, B
p
, U=1
§
Scatter from Barrier, B
s
§
Leakage thru Barrier, B
l
, U=1
v
Do the calculation for each barrier
 
3
aW H  B
im p
400
22sec
=
Scatter from Patient
vv
dd
secsec
= distance from the scattering surface to the point to= distance from the scattering surface to the point tobe protectedbe protected
vv
dd
ii
= distance from the x= distance from the x--ray source to the patientray source to the patient
vv
a = ratio of scattered radiation at one meter from thea = ratio of scattered radiation at one meter from thescattering object to the primary radiation at 1 m from thescattering object to the primary radiation at 1 m from thexx--ray target (derived with field size 20x20)ray target (derived with field size 20x20)
vv
F = field size at patient (cmF = field size at patient (cm
22
))
 AWTU  H  B
ims
α
22sec
=
Scatter from Barriers
vv
dd
secsec
= distance from the scattering surface to the point= distance from the scattering surface to the pointto be protectedto be protected
vv
dd
ii
= distance from the x= distance from the x--ray source to the barrierray source to the barrier
vv
αα
= reflection coefficient for the barrier material,= reflection coefficient for the barrier material,scattering angle, and xscattering angle, and x--ray beam energy (per mray beam energy (per m
22
))
vv
A = area of beam at the scattering surface in mA = area of beam at the scattering surface in m
22
W H  B
ml
2sec
1000
=
Leakage thru Linac Head
vv
1/1000 = Leakage factor thru the head of linac1/1000 = Leakage factor thru the head of linac
vv
dd
secsec
= distance from the isocenter (or target) to the= distance from the isocenter (or target) to thepoint to be protectedpoint to be protected
vv
Energy (@90Energy (@90
oo
) is about the produced by 2E) is about the produced by 2E
00
 /3 but /3 butconservatively assumed equal to the primaryconservatively assumed equal to the primary
Workload Considerations
vv
Choose the maximum weekly expected averageChoose the maximum weekly expected averagevalue of the dose at a meter from the target.value of the dose at a meter from the target.
vv
Survey (Survey (KlechKlechet al, 1994)et al, 1994)
§§
For single xFor single x--ray beams W=350ray beams W=350GyGy /week /week
§§
For dual xFor dual x--ray beams W = 250ray beams W = 250GyGy /week for the /week for the highest energy xhighest energy x--ray beamray beam
vv
Disregard electron beam workloadDisregard electron beam workload
vv
IMRTIMRT –  – affect all barriersaffect all barriers
vv
TBITBI –  – affect only one barrieraffect only one barrier
GycGyweek days MU cGy field  MU  patient  fieldsday patients
500500005150540
===
Workload Example
vv
Average No. of patients/day = 40Average No. of patients/day = 40
vv
Average No. of fields/patient = 5Average No. of fields/patient = 5
vv
Average No. of MU/field = 50Average No. of MU/field = 50
vv
1 MU = 11 MU = 1cGycGy
vv
No. of days/week = 5No. of days/week = 5
Dose Constraint
ØØ
ControlledControlled
vv
HmHm= 50= 50mSvmSv/year (actually 20/year (actually 20mSvmSv/year)/year) (= 20/50 = 0.4(= 20/50 = 0.4mSvmSv/week)/week)
vv
Due to ALARADue to ALARAHmHm= 0.10 to 0.20= 0.10 to 0.20mSvmSv/week (NCRP116)/week (NCRP116)
ØØ
Uncontrolled = General PublicUncontrolled = General Public
vv
HmHm= 1.0= 1.0mSvmSv/year or 0.02/year or 0.02mSvmSv/week/week
vv
Due to ALARADue to ALARAHmHm= 0.010 to 0.02= 0.010 to 0.02mSvmSv/week/week

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