SAUDI INLUENCE ON ISLAMIC INSTITUTIONS IN TURKEY
ume and kind o interactions amon societies ave rolierated to suc an etent tattere are more tins to ain trou economic and olitical cooeration tan trouaressive economic olicies. Besides, an increasin rolieration o multinationalcororations (MNCs), redominantly economic entities, callene te autonomy o states.
In an increasinly interated orld economy, countries are ily suscetibleto imbalances tat could srin rom overly aressive olitical and economic olicies,and tou states can occasionally ot to ursue a realist orein olicy stance, actorsare more commonly aare o te advantaes tat tey could ain rom internationaleace and cooeration.Aruin tat lobal olitics is saed by a sitin deree o inuence amonmilitary, economic, social, cultural, and ecoloical interdeendencies, Keoane andNye elaborate a concet o interdeendence. Tey briey describe it as te mutualdeendence o actors on eac oter, as a norm o contemorary lobal olitics. It is arocess tat caracteristically limits te autonomy o states to ormulate indeendentolicies, but also contributes to international eace and environmental rotection andacilitates lobal economic rot and elare.Te autors introduce te concet o asymmetrical interdeendence as a dereeo imbalance in te deendence o eac actor on one anoter, a rocess tat rovidesrelatively less deendent actors it sources o oer to aly inuence over more de-endent ones.
A distinction is also made beteen “sensitivity” and “vulnerability” in-terdeendence. Sensitivity reers to situations ere liabilities are sort-term, limited,and small-scale, ile vulnerability reers to oosite cases ere te liabilities avemore lon-term, dee, and idesread eects stretcin over a ide rane o areas.global olitics is tus saed by asymmetries in interdeendence and te sensitivity orvulnerability o eac actor to tese articular liabilities.
OIl rEGIMES, ISlAM, AND POlITICS
Te oil-roducin countries o te Middle East ave ad a reat imact on re-ional and lobal olitics as a result o teir ability, in te 20
century, to secure reatercontrol over teir domestic oil industries and unite in some international oranizationsit oter roducin countries to reulate te oil market. Saudi Arabia, as te leadinactor in te oil suly market, as been articularly successul in leverain its oiloer or dilomatic, cultural, economic, and oter related uroses.Te eriod beteen te discovery o oil felds in te Middle East and te nation-alization o te oil industry can be classifed as te frst oil reime, durin ic moretan 50% o etraction, refnery, transortation, and marketin o oil as controlled by
4. Ricard Cooer, “National Economic policy in an Interdeendent world Economy,” in georeT. Crane and Abla Amai, eds.,
Te Teoetica Evotion o Intenationa Poitica Econom
(NeYork: Oord University press, 1991), . 110–120; Ricard Rosecrance, “Te Tradin State: Tenand No,” in Robert J. Art and Robert Jervis, eds.,
Intenationa Poitics: Ending Concepts and Contempoa Isses
(Ne York: harer Collins Collee publisers, 1996), . 344–345, 348; Ric-ard Rosecrance and Artur Stein, “Interdeendence: Myt or Reality,”
, Vol. 26, No. 1(1973), . 11–12.5. Keoane and Nye,
Powe and Intedependence
, . 7–9.6. Keoane and Nye,
Powe and Intedependence
, . 9–17.