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Saudi Turkey

Saudi Turkey

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Published by Emine Sahin

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Published by: Emine Sahin on Apr 01, 2012
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MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL
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VOLUME 66, NO. 1, wINTER 2012hTTp://Dx.DOI.ORg/10.3751/66.1.15
© Middle East Institute. Tis article is or ersonal researc only and may not be coied ordistributed in any orm itout te ermission o Te Middle East Journal.
Saudi Inuence on Islamic Institutions inTurkey Beinnin in te 1970s
hakan Köni
Tis atice investigates te inence o Sadi Aabia on aspects o Isamic socia, poitica, and economic ie in Tke. Since te 1970s, ong beoe te ise o te Jstice and Deveopment Pat (AKP) o toda, Tkis-Sadi Aabian eationsave been caacteized b an inceasing degee o coopeation, soidait, and  patnesip centeed on cetain economic, dipomatic, socia, and cta activi-ties wit a good dea o Isamic content. Tke’s oientation towad te MiddeEast in genea and Sadi Aabia in patica taces to te goba oi cisis tat stated in 1973 and its sevee eects on te Tkis econom; it aso stems omsome o Tke’s oeign poic goas wit egad to te Cps isse and its ea-tions wit egiona and goba actos. Eampes o Sadi inence ave incded te invovement o Sadi-based non-govenmenta oganizations (NGOs) and mtinationa copoations (MNCs) in Tke, Tke’s membesip in te Oga-nization o te Isamic Coneence (OIC), and Tkis abo migation to Sadi Aabia, wit a spiove eect in a wide ange o ote aenas. Tis patica aspect o Tkis-Sadi Aabian eations is anazed sing te teo o compeintedependence, wic ndescoes te impotance o economic, socia, and c-ta isses in intenationa eations in addition to tat o taditiona poitica,dipomatic, and miita goas.
I
slam in Turkey as usually been studied it a ocus on its various olitical, social,cultural, and economic asects. A systematic eamination o some etraneous actorstat ave imined uon tese asects trouout te Turkis Reublican era can oera ne ersective. Some o tese etraneous actors, all o ic ave inuenced Islamin Turkey, include te Cold war and te biolar lobal olitical structure; US suortor reliious movements to ft aainst communism; te establisment o a Jeisstate in te Middle East and te palestinian Intiada; te 1973 oil crisis and Saudi Ara-bian international Islamic activism; te Iranian Revolution and Iranian internationalIslamic activism; jiadist movements in Aanistan and te Caucasus; and labor im-miration to Euroe and te Middle East. Te urose o tis article is to oer a teo-retical and emirical analysis o te Saudi Arabian actor, amon oters. wat are temain arenas o Islamic lie in Turkey in ic Saudi Arabia as been involved, and inat ays as tis constituted a major variable? wo are te main actors? has SaudiArabia romoted “Islamic undamentalism” in Turkey as it is sometimes claimed?Tis article analyzes tese issues rom te ersective o te teory o comleinterdeendence, ic arues tat international relations is not only driven by securitymatters, but also by various economic, social, cultural, ecoloical, and oter concernsin varyin derees, as inuenced by a letora o actors tat may include members o 
hakan Köni is a Visitin Student Researc Collaborator at princeton University’s Deartment o Near East-ern Studies and a pD Candidate at Bilkent University’s Deartment o political Science.
 
98
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MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL
dilomatic missions, transnational and trans-overnmental oranizations, interovern-mental oranizations, individual ersons, etc., and ic may take lace trou o-fcial and unofcial cannels. Turkis-Saudi Arabian relations ave been caracterizedby an increasin tone o rarocement, cooeration, and solidarity beinnin in te1970s, it occasional uctuations, and relyin on some commonly sared istoricaland cultural values in addition to te aareness o sared economic and dilomaticinterests related to te 1973 Arab-Israeli war and ensuin lobal oil crisis, te Cyrusissue, and roblems o te Turkis oulation in Bularia, as ell as te questions o te Israeli occuation o Jerusalem and te palestinian Intiada. A common teme inmost o tese areas is te sared Islamic identity o Turkey and Saudi Arabia. wilete aorementioned issues led to closer relations in te 1970s and 1980s, te roincooeration as remained in eect to te resent.
ThE ThEOry O COMPlEx INTErDEPENDENCE ExPlAINED
“Comle interdeendence” oers a refnement and syntesis o traditionalist(realist) and modernist (idealist) teories o international relations, it an arumenttat neiter o tese to scools resents a comlete icture o lobal olitics and tatin a roressively more soisticated lobal olitical environment, a more accuratevie could be develoed trou teir amalamation. Tus, Robert Keoane and Jo-se Nye mered arts o eac teory it additional emirical analysis to roduce teteory o comle interdeendence. But it could be more accurate to say tat comleinterdeendence is a revision o te modernist scool, sulemented it some aru-ments rom te traditional scool to callene te traditionalists.
1
Te teory does notreject te realist assumtion tat military security is a crucial orein olicy oal, butit adds tat economic, social, cultural, and ecoloical concerns could also rank i onte olitical aenda it canin derees o sinifcance.
2
 Comle interdeendence borros te idea rom te modernist scool tat tenation-state is not te only actor in international relations; many oter interovernmen-tal, nonovernmental, transnational, social, and cultural actors interact in an interna-tional system not invariably caracterized by a state o anarcy or restricted to matterso survival. global olitics as radually evolved into a ily interated internationalsystem, ere te ursuit o military oals bears enormous costs or all arties. Teactors ave more tins to ain trou international eace and cooeration, as tey aremuc better o en tey romote economic, ecoloical, and social oals.In te sere o international olitical economy (IpE), comle interdeendenceis similarly closer to te modernist scool (idealist, liberal) rater tan te realist scool,ic rooses tat states ain economic and olitical advantae only at te eense o oter states.
3
Te modernists oint out tat economic roserity and olitical stabilityis ily associated it te romotion o international eace and security. Te vol-
1. Robert Keoane and Jose Nye,
Powe and Intedependence
(Ne York: Lonman, 2001),. 3–5.2. Keoane and Nye,
Powe and Intedependence
, . 3–5, 20–21.3. Steen Krasner, “Te Accomlisments o International political Economy,” in Steve Smit,Ken Boot, and Marysia Zaleski, eds.,
 Intenationa Teo: Positivism and Beond 
(Ne York:Cambride University press, 1996), . 109.
 
SAUDI INLUENCE ON ISLAMIC INSTITUTIONS IN TURKEY
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99
ume and kind o interactions amon societies ave rolierated to suc an etent tattere are more tins to ain trou economic and olitical cooeration tan trouaressive economic olicies. Besides, an increasin rolieration o multinationalcororations (MNCs), redominantly economic entities, callene te autonomy o states.
4
In an increasinly interated orld economy, countries are ily suscetibleto imbalances tat could srin rom overly aressive olitical and economic olicies,and tou states can occasionally ot to ursue a realist orein olicy stance, actorsare more commonly aare o te advantaes tat tey could ain rom internationaleace and cooeration.Aruin tat lobal olitics is saed by a sitin deree o inuence amonmilitary, economic, social, cultural, and ecoloical interdeendencies, Keoane andNye elaborate a concet o interdeendence. Tey briey describe it as te mutualdeendence o actors on eac oter, as a norm o contemorary lobal olitics. It is arocess tat caracteristically limits te autonomy o states to ormulate indeendentolicies, but also contributes to international eace and environmental rotection andacilitates lobal economic rot and elare.Te autors introduce te concet o asymmetrical interdeendence as a dereeo imbalance in te deendence o eac actor on one anoter, a rocess tat rovidesrelatively less deendent actors it sources o oer to aly inuence over more de-endent ones.
5
A distinction is also made beteen “sensitivity” and “vulnerability” in-terdeendence. Sensitivity reers to situations ere liabilities are sort-term, limited,and small-scale, ile vulnerability reers to oosite cases ere te liabilities avemore lon-term, dee, and idesread eects stretcin over a ide rane o areas.global olitics is tus saed by asymmetries in interdeendence and te sensitivity orvulnerability o eac actor to tese articular liabilities.
6
 
OIl rEGIMES, ISlAM, AND POlITICS
Te oil-roducin countries o te Middle East ave ad a reat imact on re-ional and lobal olitics as a result o teir ability, in te 20
t
century, to secure reatercontrol over teir domestic oil industries and unite in some international oranizationsit oter roducin countries to reulate te oil market. Saudi Arabia, as te leadinactor in te oil suly market, as been articularly successul in leverain its oiloer or dilomatic, cultural, economic, and oter related uroses.Te eriod beteen te discovery o oil felds in te Middle East and te nation-alization o te oil industry can be classifed as te frst oil reime, durin ic moretan 50% o etraction, refnery, transortation, and marketin o oil as controlled by
4. Ricard Cooer, “National Economic policy in an Interdeendent world Economy,” in georeT. Crane and Abla Amai, eds.,
Te Teoetica Evotion o Intenationa Poitica Econom
(NeYork: Oord University press, 1991), . 110–120; Ricard Rosecrance, “Te Tradin State: Tenand No,” in Robert J. Art and Robert Jervis, eds.,
 Intenationa Poitics: Ending Concepts and Contempoa Isses
(Ne York: harer Collins Collee publisers, 1996), . 344–345, 348; Ric-ard Rosecrance and Artur Stein, “Interdeendence: Myt or Reality,”
Wod 
 
Poitics
, Vol. 26, No. 1(1973), . 11–12.5. Keoane and Nye,
Powe and Intedependence
, . 7–9.6. Keoane and Nye,
Powe and Intedependence
, . 9–17.

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