Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Integrated System-Level Electronic Design Automation (EDA) for Designing Plasmonic nanoCircuits

Integrated System-Level Electronic Design Automation (EDA) for Designing Plasmonic nanoCircuits

Ratings: (0)|Views: 45 |Likes:
Published by Oka Kurniawan
Abstract—This work proposes a system-level circuit simulation framework for nanoplasmonic devices, and presents as an example of the simulation of a plasmonic nanocircuit. The electronic design automation (EDA) environment provides an equivalent circuit model library for several plasmonic Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) based devices. The accuracy of the equivalent models for the plasmonic nanocircuit library is verified by using full-wave simulations and analytical equations. These models are then used to design an ultra-compact Mach-Zehnder (MZ) plasmonic modulator. It is shown that the voltage required to achieve a π phase shift (Vπ) in the modulator can be predicted by the simulator with reasonable accuracy. The optimized design of the modulator is also presented that reduces the value of Vπ according to the required specification.
Abstract—This work proposes a system-level circuit simulation framework for nanoplasmonic devices, and presents as an example of the simulation of a plasmonic nanocircuit. The electronic design automation (EDA) environment provides an equivalent circuit model library for several plasmonic Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) based devices. The accuracy of the equivalent models for the plasmonic nanocircuit library is verified by using full-wave simulations and analytical equations. These models are then used to design an ultra-compact Mach-Zehnder (MZ) plasmonic modulator. It is shown that the voltage required to achieve a π phase shift (Vπ) in the modulator can be predicted by the simulator with reasonable accuracy. The optimized design of the modulator is also presented that reduces the value of Vπ according to the required specification.

More info:

Published by: Oka Kurniawan on Apr 02, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/01/2012

pdf

text

original

 
TNANO-00215-2011-R#
 Abstract 
 —This work proposes a system-level circuit simulationframework for nanoplasmonic devices, and presents as anexample of the simulation of a plasmonic nanocircuit. Theelectronic design automation (EDA) environment provides anequivalent circuit model library for several plasmonic Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) based devices. The accuracy of theequivalent models for the plasmonic nanocircuit library isverified by using full-wave simulations and analytical equations.These models are then used to design an ultra-compact Mach-Zehnder (MZ) plasmonic modulator. It is shown that the voltagerequired to achieve a π phase shift (
π 
) in the modulator can bepredicted by the simulator with reasonable accuracy. Theoptimized design of the modulator is also presented that reducesthe value of 
π 
according to the required specification.
 Index Terms
 —Equivalent circuit, nanoplasmonic waveguide,nanocircuit, Mach-Zehnder modulator.
I.I
 NTRODUCTION
OMPACT integrated nanophotonic devices promise bothhigh speed and small dimensions for information processing. Such integration will benefit considerably from theapplication of sub-wavelength photonic structures. In recentyears, it has been demonstrated theoretically andexperimentally that propagating electromagnetic waves can becoupled into sub-wavelength photonic devices through surface plasmon polaritons, the study of which is commonly referred toas plasmonics [1]-[3].
C
The efficient design of sub-wavelength plasmonic structurestypically requires full-wave electromagnetic simulations for accurate characterization of the device at nano-scale, whichmay become quite costly. Within the microwave frequencyspectrum, the numerical burden of full-wave simulations isalleviated by simulating auxiliary circuit models of actual
  
Manuscript received August 29, 2011. This work was supported by theA*STAR Metamaterials-Nanoplasmonics research programme under grantnumber A*STAR-SERC 0921540098. The authors are grateful to Professor Wolfgang R. J. Hoefer for fruitful discussions and valuable comments.H.-S. Chu is with the Electronics and Photonics department, A*STAR-Instituteof High Performance Computing, 138632 SINGAPORE (phone: +65-6419-1314;fax: +65-6463-0200; e-mail: chuhs@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg).O. Kurniawan, was with A*STAR-Institute of High Performance Computing,138632 SINGAPORE. He is now with the school of Mathematics and Science,Singapore Polytechnic, 139651 SINGAPORE (email:oka_kurniawan@sp.edu.sg).W. Zhang, D. Li, and E.-P. Li are with the Electronics and Photonicsdepartment, A*STAR-Institute of High Performance Computing, 138632SINGAPORE (e-mail: {zhangwz;lid;eplee}@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg).
devices at the system level [4]. Recently, analog concepts havealso been adopted in the plasmonic regime. Equivalenttransmission-line models and circuits have been vastly proposed to characterize several plasmonic structures includingslot and cylindrical waveguide [5]-[10], metallic nanoparticles[11]. Moreover, the waveguide-based devices have also beenanalyzed by using impedance matching of the circuit modelwhich include the quarter-wavelength transformers used for optical-to-plasmonic mode conversion [12], as well as theFabry-Perot structures and MIM stubs [9], [13]. However, allthese works focus on single elements of plasmonic nanocircuit.For these reasons, an Electronic Design Automation (EDA)tool integrating circuit representations of different componentsand being capable of modeling comprehensive plasmonicnanocircuits and systems, would be highly desirable.The purpose of this work is therefore two-fold. Firstly, asoftware tool designed for the system level simulation of  plasmonic nanocircuits is developed within the generalframework of a photonic nanocircuit design environment. Acomponent library containing equivalent circuit-level models of various plasmonic nanostructures, such as waveguides andsplitters, is built up. The validity of the circuit models aredemonstrated by comparison with full-wave results. Secondly,a Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator is designed with the aidof the software. It is shown that a compact design issuccessfully achieved, with a considerably low driving voltage,which proves the effectiveness of the system level modeling.The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. After introducing the framework of an integrated system-level plasmonic nanocircuit design environment in Section II, theequivalent model of MIM-based components is presented inSection III to specify how the simulation methods of acomponent in the library are defined in that environment.Section IV discusses the Mach-Zehnder modulator design usingthe component library and the proposed design environment.Finally, Section V concludes the paper with a brief summary.II.S
YSTEM
-L
EVEL
 
 NANO
P
LASMONIC
C
IRCUIT
D
ESIGN
 
AND
 S
IMULATION
Photonic nanocircuits, alternatively plasmonic nanocircuitsare routed for on-chip integration [14]-[15]. The design of thecircuit starts by identifying electrical net-lists to be routedthrough the optical interconnects. Fig. 1 shows the architecture
Integrated System-Level Electronic DesignAutomation (EDA) for Designing PlasmonicnanoCircuits
Hong-Son Chu, Oka Kurniawan, Wenzu Zhang, Dongying Li,
 Member, IEEE 
, and Er-Ping Li,
 Fellow, IEEE 
1
 
TNANO-00215-2011-R#of the proposed plasmonic nanocircuit design environment.The environment has an optical component library, which isused in route planning and performance simulation. Theelectrical layer that forms the input describes the electrical net-lists and their I/O characteristics. The characteristics arerepresented by suitable behavioral models.Depending on different design and modeling functions in thedesign flow, each component in the library will be representedat different levels for the corresponding functions. Foexample, the geometry configuration and parameters of awaveguide could be used to realize the physical optical link  path and also to simulate its property at the device level if necessary. At the system level, the component could bemodeled by certain behavioral models, such as S-matrices or transmission-line based circuits. The behavioral model isrepresented in the library.
Let us consider one channel of a typical plasmonic link, asshown in Fig. 2. This link consists of waveguides (WG),power splitters (PS), filters (F), modulators (MOD),multiplexers (MUX) to group different channels, de-multiplexers (DEMUX) to divide the signal into singlechannels, and photodetectors (PD) to convert the opticalsignal into an electrical signal. The waveguide may have astraight or a bend shape. The modulator is chosen as aplasmonic modulator due to its compactness and low powerconsumption, while the driver of the modulator should bebased on the electro-optical or all-optical control to achieve ahigh speed device [16]-[17]. The plasmonic photodetector isalso desired because it can achieve high intensity and compactsize [18]. To realize an integrated system, a multi-physicssimulator is needed to model the electrical, optical, thermal ormechanical responses in a consistent way. In general, eachparticular behavior of this system, such as its optical property,can be modeled by using full-wave commercial software suchas Comsol, Lumerical or Rsoft. However, the compatibility interms of the complexity and the synchronization timingbetween different simulation/design environments is a keychallenge to achieve an effective nanocircuit design. In thiscontext, it is necessary to create behavioral models for eachplasmonic device; for example each device can be representedin the form of S-matrices or distributed elements. In Fig. 2,we assume that each straight/bend waveguide, filter,modulator and photodetector is characterized by an S-matrix.Then the behavior between the input and output of thisplasmonic link is characterized in terms of these S-matrices.
Fig. 3 shows a typical circuit network that models an opticalchannel from modulator (MOD) to photodetector (PD) shownin Fig. 2. Each element in the network is represented by its S-matrix. The electrical signals are loaded into the carrier signalthrough channels of a nanophotonic link by drivers of modulators, and extracted from the carrier signal by photodetectors. Along the channel, the light wave (i.e. carrier signal) is guided through waveguides. The multiplexer (MUX)multiplexes a number of carrier signals into a signal optical path. The de-multiplexer (DEMUX) performs the inverse process. The wavelengths and arrows shown between twocircuit blocks indicate dominant light waves and their  propagation direction.
The advantage of using such an equivalent modelingapproach is obvious since it enables fast computation thatallows engineers to quickly design and optimize their devices.It will be shown throughout this paper that our equivalentmodel enables us to quickly design a Mach-Zehnderplasmonic modulator with acceptable accuracy. Fig. 4 showsthe sub-circuit of a two-channel splitter (a special DEMUX)with MIM components, which are modeled by transmissionline based equivalent circuits. The sub-circuit as a whole canreplace a DEMUX in Fig. 3. Fig. 5 shows a MIM waveguideand its equivalent circuit model. The system levelcharacterization of these elements, which are essentialcomponents of the plasmonic modulator, will be detailed inthe next section. The waveguide is parameterized in thelibrary. The parameters include those of its geometry (i.e.cross section and length), bandwidth, and effective refractiveindex and so on.
2Plasmonic nanoCircuit Design (GUI):Optical Net-list, Components and Routing Plan Net-list andFloor-planHigh-levelParameters for RoutePlanningParameterized GeometryConfiguration andSimulation Models(or Behavior Models)PerformanceModeling andSimulationOptical RoutePlanning andPhysical SynthesisBehavior Models(I/O)Plasmonic Component Library:Electrical Layer Representation:
Fig. 1. Architecture of a system-level plasmonic nanocircuit designenvironment.
 
TNANO-00215-2011-R#
The system level simulator developed in this work uses theModelica language that allows us to model the MIMstructures using transmission line models [16]. This model isfully compatible with SPICE and hence can be run in anySPICE simulator. We have chosen the Modelica languagebecause it allows us to extend our model for multi-physicssimulations where optic, electronic, thermal and evenmechanical models can be integrated into a single simulationplatform.
Fig. 5. A metal-insulator-metal waveguide can be modeled as atransmission line with characteristic impedance ZMIM and time delay t
d
.The circuit model of the transmission line is also shown.
III.E
QUIVALENT
M
ODELS
 
FOR 
P
LASMONIC
M
ETAL
-I
 NSULATOR 
-M
ETAL
B
ASED
C
OMPONENTS
 A.MIM waveguides
A simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide can bemodeled by a transmission line as shown in Fig. 5. In thismodel it is assumed that the loss due to the metal isnegligible. This assumption can be justified if the overallstructure size is much smaller than the propagation length of the MIM waveguide. The propagation length of a MIMwaveguide made of silver, operated at
λ 
0
 
= 1.55
µ
mwavelength and having a slot width
w
= 50 nm is more than10
λ 
0
[19], whereas the overall length of our Mach-Zehnderplasmonic modulator is only about 2
 µ
m. Therefore, alossless model can be used in this case. A quasistaticapproximation is also used in this situation. It is valid whenthe slot width of the MIM waveguide is much smaller than thewavelength of the electromagnetic wave, which is true in ourcase (where the slot width is approximately 1/30 of thewavelength). The quasistatic approximation allows us toassume that there is no bending loss in the structures.The characteristic impedance of this transmission line canbe calculated from [5]
 
0 0
( )
 MIM  MIM 
w Z w
β ω ε 
=
 (1)
where
 β
 MIM 
(w)
is the propagation constant and is a function of the slot width of the MIM waveguide. The terms
ω
0
and
ε
0
are the free space angular frequency and permittivity,respectively.In this model, the propagation constant is calculated from
 
0
2( )
 MIM eff  
w n
π β λ 
=
(2)
where
n
eff 
is the effective refractive index of the MIMwaveguide, and
 λ
0
is the free space wavelength. The questionnow is how we can get the effective refractive index of theplasmonic waveguide. The effective refractive index can beobtained from full-wave simulations or with the effectiveindex method [20]. In this case, we have used the full
3
Fig. 3. A typical nano-photonic circuit network from modulator (MOD) tophotodetector (PD).
λ 
n
λ 
1
λ 
1
λ 
1
, …, λ 
n
λ 
n
λ 
1
λ 
n
λ 
1
, …, λ 
n
λ 
1
λ 
n
λ 
n
λ 
1
[S]
MUX
[S]
WG
 
[S]
MOD
[S]
MOD
[S]
WG
[S]
WG
[S]
DEMUX
[S]
WG
[S]
PD
[S]
PD
[S]
WG
Out
1
(λ 
1
,…, λ 
n
)
Fig. 4. MIM component sub-circuit modeled with a transmissionline equivalent circuit
In(λ 
1
,…, λ 
n
)Out
2
(λ 
1
,…, λ 
n
)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->