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Traditional Uses and Commercial Utilization of Seabuckthorn in Mustang District

Traditional Uses and Commercial Utilization of Seabuckthorn in Mustang District

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01/16/2013

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Original
 
paper
 
TRADITIONAL
 
USES
 
AND
 
COMMERCIAL
 
UTILIZATION
 
OF
 
SEABUCKTHORN
 
(
 HIPPOPHAE
 
L.)
 
IN
 
MUSTANG
 
DISTRICT,
 
NEPAL
 
Khilendra
 
Gurung*
 
and
 
Vimal
 
N
 
P
 
Gupta**
 
*Siddhartha
 
Herbal
 
Industry,
 
Kathmandu
 
**Central
 
Department
 
of
 
Botany,
 
Tribhuvan
 
University
 
Abstract
 
Mustang
 
district
 
is
 
the
 
arid
 
region
 
of
 
Nepal
 
characterized
 
 by
 
harsh
 
climatic
 
conditions,
 
fragile
 
soil,
 
low
 
productivity
 
and
 
sparse
 
vegetation.
 
Seabuckthorn
 
(
Hippophae
 
L.)
 
is
 
the
 
most
 
appropriate
 
multipurpose
 
option
 
for
 
such
 
region.
 
It
 
has
 
the
 
potential
 
to
 
support
 
high
 
value
added
 
products,
 
which
 
can
 
 be
 
integrated
 
within
 
the
 
market
 
economy,
 
as
 
well
 
as
 
to
 
support
 
the
 
rehabilitation
 
and
 
upgrading
 
of
 
marginal
 
slopes
 
through
 
soil
 
 binding
 
and
 
 building
 
in
 
mountain
 
areas.
 
Study
 
of
 
Seabuckthorn
 
was
 
carried
 
out
 
in
 
Mustang
 
district
 
on
 
the
 
ground
 
of
 
traditional
 
uses
 
and
 
commercial
 
value.
 
RRA
 
tools
 
and
 
semi
structured
 
interview
 
was
 
conducted
 
with
 
key
 
informants
 
as
 
local
 
healers
 
(Amchis),
 
elder
 
villagers,
 
schoolteachers,
 
hotel
 
and
 
restaurant
 
owners,
 
herders
 
and
 
ACAP
 
staffs.
 
Local
 
people
 
have
 
 been
 
utilizing
 
Seabuckthorn
 
as
 
their
 
daily
 
commodity
 
in
 
the
 
form
 
of
 
subsidiary
 
food
 
items,
 
for
 
treatment,
 
fuel
 
wood,
 
timber,
 
fencing,
 
fodder,
 
fixative
 
and
 
polish.
 
Hotel
 
and
 
restaurant
 
owners
 
of
 
trekking
 
route
 
are
 
 benefited
 
 by
 
exploiting
 
this
 
resource
 
in
 
the
 
form
 
of
 
 juice
 
and
 
 jam.
 
Still
 
the
 
local
 
people
 
are
 
not
 
 benefited
 
from
 
this
 
resource.
 
Programs
 
are
 
required
 
to
 
popularize
 
the
 
plant
 
among
 
local
 
people,
 
so
 
as
 
to
 
establish
 
it
 
as
 
an
 
alternative
 
source
 
of
 
income
 
generation.
 
Key
 
words:
 
Seabuckthorn,
 
 Hippophae
,
 
Traditional,
 
Commercial,
 
Mustang
 
Introduction
 
Mustang
 
district,
 
located
 
towards
 
the
 
north
 
of
 
main
 
mountain
 
crest
 
of
 
Annapurna
Dhaulagiri
 
range
 
has
 
created
 
an
 
arid
 
zone,
 
characterized
 
 by
 
harsh
 
climatic
 
conditions,
 
fragile
 
soil,
 
low
 
productivity
 
of
 
agriculture
 
lands
 
and
 
sparse
 
vegetation.
 
In
 
such
 
regions,
 
on
 
the
 
one
 
hand,
 
numerous
 
plants
 
served
 
to
 
supplement
 
very
 
limited
 
food
 
resources
 
while
 
on
 
the
 
other
 
hand
 
they
 
were
 
indispensable
 
in
 
the
 
treatment
 
of
 
various
 
diseases
 
(Pohle,
 
1990).
 
Seabuckthorn
 
(
Hippophae
 
L.)
 
is
 
the
 
most
 
appropriate
 
multipurpose
 
option
 
suited
 
for
 
dry
 
mountain
 
areas.
 
It
 
has
 
the
 
potential
 
to
 
support
 
high
 
value
 
added
 
products,
 
which
 
can
 
 be
 
integrated
 
within
 
the
 
market
 
economy
 
as
 
well
 
as
 
to
 
support
 
the
 
 
rehabilitation
 
and
 
upgrading
 
of
 
marginal
 
slopes
 
through
 
soil
 
 binding
 
and
 
 building
 
in
 
mountain
 
areas
 
(Rongsen,
 
1992).
 
Seabuckthorn
 
is
 
a
 
native
 
plant
 
of
 
the
 
Himalayas,
 
distributed
 
throughout
 
northwestern
 
regions
 
of
 
Nepal.
 
In
 
Mustang
 
district,
 
two
 
species
 
of
 
Seabuckthorn
 
viz
 
Hippophae
 
salicifolia
 
D.Don
 
and
 
Hippophae
 
tibetana
 
Schlecht.
 
are
 
identified
 
(Rimal,
 
1995
 
and
 
Thomson
 
et
 
al
.,
 
1996).
 
Hippophae
 
salicifolia
 
occurred
 
naturally
 
 between
 
2000m
2800m
 
in
 
Ghansa,
 
Kaikukhola,
 
Ghumaune,
 
Letekhola,
 
Kokhethanti,
 
Dhampu,
 
Larjung
 
and
 
Yankinkhola
 
in
 
Mustang.
 
Whereas
 
luxuriant
 
growth
 
of
 
Hippophae
 
tibetana
 
occurred
 
 between
 
2900m
4000m
 
in
 
Lupra,
 
Tsaile,
 
Khingar,
 
 Jhongkhola,
 
Chhaingurkhola,
 
Ghami,
 
Charang,
 
Marang,
 
 Jharkot,
 
Purang,
 
Dhakmar,
 
Nyamshuk,
 
Lomanthang,
 
Chhoser,
 
Phuwa
 
and
 
Thengar
 
of
 
Mustang.
 
Seabuckthorn
 
occurred
 
on
 
the
 
fragile
 
lands
 
with
 
weak
 
soil
 
composition
 
and
 
unfertile
 
riverfords,
 
mostly
 
on
 
the
 
southerly
 
exposed
 
slopes.
 
Newly
 
emerging
 
plants
 
were
 
grown
 
abundantly
 
along
 
the
 
fords
 
where
 
the
 
associated
 
species
 
were
 
lacking.
 
They
 
invade
 
the
 
 barren
 
lands
 
as
 
the
 
pioneer
 
species
 
of
 
secondary
 
succession
 
(Gupta
 
et
 
al
.,
 
2001
 
and
 
Gurung,
 
2001).
 
The
 
aim
 
of
 
this
 
survey
 
is
 
the
 
first
 
and
 
foremost
 
to
 
document
 
the
 
range
 
of
 
the
 
local
 
people
ʹ
s
 
knowledge
 
on
 
Seabuckthorn
 
and
 
their
 
exploitation
 
for
 
commercial
 
use
 
in
 
Mustang
 
district.
 
Materials
 
and
 
Methods
 
Study
 
Area
 
Mustang
 
district
 
lies
 
in
 
the
 
north
central
 
part
 
of
 
Nepal,
 
 between
 
28
0
24
ʹ‐
29
0
20
ʹ
N
 
and
 
83
0
30
ʹ‐
84
0
10
ʹ
E.
 
The
 
district
 
covers
 
an
 
area
 
of
 
3573
 
sq.
 
km.
 
with
 
elevation
 
ranges
 
from
 
1372m
8167m.
 
The
 
rainfall
 
was
 
maximum
 
in
 
 July
 
and
 
August
 
(42.3
 
mm
 
and
 
41.8
 
mm
 
respectively)
 
and
 
minimum
 
rainfall
 
occurred
 
in
 
November
 
i.e.
 
1.6
 
mm.
 
Similarly,
 
the
 
average
 
monthly
 
temperature
 
at
 
the
 
study
 
site
 
was
 
highest
 
in
 
 July
 
and
 
August
 
(14
0
C
 
and
 
13.8
0
C
 
respectively)
 
and
 
the
 
lowest
 
temperature
 
was
 
recorded
 
in
 
the
 
month
 
of
 
 January
 
and
 
February
 
as
 
–3.5
0
C
 
and
 
–2.5
0
C
 
respectively
 
(Anonymous,
 
2003).
 
Most
 
of
 
the
 
vegetation
 
is
 
composed
 
of
 
scarce
 
and
 
scattered
 
patches
 
of
 
thorny
 
cushion
 
plants
 
(
Caragana
 
spp,
 
 Astragalus
 
spp,
 
Lonicera
 
spp)
 
showing
 
affinity
 
with
 
the
 
Tibetan
 
Plateau.
 
Sheltered
 
places
 
have
 
 junipers,
 
 blue
 
pine
 
and
 
 birches,
 
while
 
moist
 
ravines
 
and
 
riverbanks
 
have
 
poplars
 
and
 
Seabuckthorn.
 
 
Stretches
 
of
 
steppic
 
landscapes
 
are
 
found
 
in
 
the
 
upper
 
Mustang
 
region
 
(TISC,
 
2002).
 
The
 
settlements
 
are
 
predominantly
 
concentrated
 
along
 
the
 
Kaligandaki
 
valley;
 
however,
 
large
 
areas
 
remain
 
uninhabited
 
due
 
to
 
high
 
relief
 
conditions.
 
Reflective
 
of
 
the
 
varying
 
natural
 
conditions
 
and
 
cultural
 
situation,
 
the
 
population
 
comprise
 
of
 
ethnic
 
composition:
 
Thakali,
 
Gurung,
 
Thakuri
 
(Tibetan
 
ethnic
 
origin),
 
Magar
 
and
 
Kami.
 
The
 
inhabitants
 
of
 
lower
 
Mustang,
 
mainly
 
Thakalis
 
and
 
Thakuris
 
are
 
engaged
 
in
 
the
 
tourist
 
 business
 
as
 
owners
 
of
 
lodges
 
and
 
restaurants.
 
Whereas,
 
residence
 
of
 
upper
 
Mustang
 
draw
 
income
 
from
 
animal
 
husbandry,
 
agriculture
 
and
 
carry
 
on
 
small
scale
 
trade
 
of
 
herbs,
 
spices,
 
yak
 
wool
 
and
 
dried
 
cheese
 
in
 
the
 
lower
 
altitudes
 
during
 
winter.
 
It
 
is
 
only
 
in
 
March
 
that
 
all
 
the
 
inhabitants
 
return
 
to
 
upper
 
Mustang
 
for
 
sowing
 
their
 
fields.
 
Methods
 
of
 
Study
 
Different
 
parts
 
of
 
Mustang
 
district
 
were
 
surveyed
 
in
 
March
May
 
2000,
 
along
 
different
 
transects.
 
Semi
structured
 
interviews
 
were
 
conducted
 
with
 
key
 
informants
 
who
 
were
 
healers
 
(Amchis),
 
shepherds/herders,
 
firewood/fuel
 
wood
 
collectors
 
(esp.
 
women)
 
and
 
farmers
 
who
 
possessed
 
knowledge
 
on
 
the
 
traditional
 
uses
 
of
 
Seabuckthorn.
 
Rapid
 
rural
 
appraisal
 
(RRA)
 
tools
 
were
 
carried
 
out
 
among
 
office
 
staffs
 
(ACAP
 
members),
 
local
 
users/hotel
 
and
 
restaurant
 
owners,
 
local
 
leaders
 
and
 
schoolteachers.
 
They
 
were
 
consulted
 
for
 
traditional
 
uses
 
and
 
commercial
 
exploitation
 
of
 
Seabuckthorn;
 
their
 
local
 
names,
 
parts
 
used,
 
modes
 
of
 
preparation
 
of
 
remedies,
 
diseases
 
treated
 
and
 
methods
 
of
 
their
 
administration.
 
Repeated
 
queries
 
were
 
made
 
with
 
same
 
informants
 
and
 
cross
checked
 
at
 
different
 
places
 
with
 
other
 
informants.
 
The
 
data
 
were
 
considered
 
valid
 
only
 
if
 
at
 
least
 
three
 
informants
 
had
 
similar
 
comments
 
about
 
the
 
usage
 
of
 
Seabuckthorn.
 
Results
 
and
 
Discussion
 
Table:
 
1
 
Traditional
 
and
 
Commercial
 
Uses
 
of
 
Seabuckthorn
 
in
 
Mustang
 
district.
 
Species
 
Local
 
Name
 
Traditional
 
 / 
 
Commercial
 
Uses
 
Additive
 
foods
 
Medicines Others
 
Hippophae
 
salicifolia
 
Chichi
 
(Thakali)
 
Vinegar,
 
Pickles,
 
 Juice
 
Swelling
 
and
 
removal
 
of
 
tooth
 
stain
 
Timber
 
(Plough
 
making)
 

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