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Design of the Disposal System of Lahore. Lab Repor 2

Design of the Disposal System of Lahore. Lab Repor 2

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Published by: Muhammad Imran Nawaz on Apr 02, 2012
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06/28/2013

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Wastewater Disposal and Reuse
Lab Report # 2
 
Design of the Disposal Systemof Lahore
Muhammad Imran Nawaz2008-ENV-43
 26/03/2012
 
1
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction 2
Chapter 2
Preparation o model for existing conditions 4
2.1
 
Given Data for existing conditions 4
 
2.2
 
Constants and Velocities Given 4
 
2.3
 
Procedure for Developing the Model 5
 
2.4
 
Equations and Formulas used 5
 
2.5
 
Representation of the Results for Existing Conditions 6
 
Chapter 3
Treatment Options and Alternatives 8
3.1
 
Dilution
9
3.1.1
 
Applying Dilution to the Model 9
 
3.2
 
Treatment 11
3.3
 
Applying treatment options on the model 14
3.3.1
 
Trail 1: Using Primary Treatment 14
3.3.2
 
Trail 2: Applying 70 % DOT 16
3.3.3
 
Trail 3: Applying 80 % DOT 17
Chapter 4
Recommendations 19References 20
 
2
Chapter 1
Introduction
For the section of the River Ravi from the entry point into Pakistan originating from India toRavi Siphon after Marala Ravi Link Canal joins, the river keeps a good water quality such as 2.8to 4.3 mg/L in BOD
5
, 4.8 to 11.5 mg/L in COD, and 20 to 40 mg/L in SS.
(EPA. Punjab Report)
 Due to the discharge control at Thein Dam in India, the natural discharge from India is hardlyexpected in the River Ravi especially during the dry seasonLahore is located in the upstream most reach of the Ravi River and all the domestic, commercialand industrial wastewater generated in the almost entire Lahore with a population of 6.5 millionand 2,700 industries is discharged into the river without any treatment in 2008, whichsubstantially forms the biggest pollution source of its river basin.At present, the major downstream use of the River Ravi is for irrigation beyond theBallokiHeadworks. However, the population and economic activities in the immediate areasalong the river from Lahore to BallokiHeadworks (64 km) are affected in different degrees bypollution in the river. It is estimated that waste water (domestic and industrial) from Lahore willincrease significantly as a proportion of total flow in the river. In a one in twenty year minimummonthly flow, wastewater from Lahore accounted for about 47 percent of total flow in 1987,rising to about 68 percent in 2007.(
Source: En
vironment Department, CDGL, “Environmental 
Profile of Lahore (2007-
08)”
 
The wide variety of fish that once swam in the Ravi has vanished, as have the tiny minnows andcrabs children used to catch in the shallow waters along the banks. Even the reeds that used toline the river have gone. The river is virtually dead even when the normally dry bed carrieswater, such as after the rains.(
Source: Environment Department, CDGL, “Environmental Profile
of Lahore (2007-
08)”)
 The Environmental Protection Department of the Punjab Provincial Government considers thatthe river is under a constant threat of indiscriminate disposal of untreated municipal sewage fromLahore / industrial sewage from Faisalabad through Maduana Drain and industrial effluent fromindustrial units of Kala Shah Kaku along G.T. Road, Sheikhupura Road, Township and GulbergIndustrial Estate located in Metropolitan of Lahore and untreated industrial wastewater of District Kasur.(
Source: Letter from the Secretary of EPD to the Secretaries of HUD&PHED,
 Irrigation Department and Industrial Department, “Installation of Wastewater Treatment Plantsto Save River Ravi from Pollution”, dated 16/09/2009).
 
Historically, the River Ravi has not been used as a major source of potable water. Mostcommunities in the area, including Lahore, are dependent on ground water as the major source of drinking water. In the rural areas of districts which border the river from Lahore to

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