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Mandukya Upanishad

Mandukya Upanishad

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Published by: deepaksubsmani@yahoo.com on Dec 10, 2008
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Mandukya Upanishad
1. Aum, the word, is all this [i.e. the whole universe]. A clear explanation of it is as follows: All that is past, present, andfuture is, indeed, Aum. And whatever else there is, beyond the three—fold division of time – that also is truly Aum.2. All this is, indeed, Brahman. This Atman is Brahman. This same Atman has four quarters (padas).3. The first quarter (pada) is called Vaisvanara, whose sphere of activity is the waking state, who is conscious of externalobjects, who has seven limbs and nineteen mouths, and who is the experiencer of gross objects.4. The second quarter (pada) is Tajasa, whose sphere of activity is the dream state, who is conscious of internal objects,who is endowed with seven limbs and nineteen mouths, and who is the experiencer of subtle objects.5. That is the state of deep sleep wherein one asleep neither desires any object nor sees any dream. The third quarter isPrajna, whose sphere is deep sleep, in whom all experiences become unified, who is, verily, a mass of consciousness, whois full of bliss and experiences bliss, and who is the door leading to the knowledge [of dreaming and waking].6. He is the Lord of all. He is the knower of all. He is the inner controller. He is the source of all; for from him all beingsoriginate and in him they finally disappear.7. Turiya is not that which is conscious of the inner (subjective) world, nor that which is conscious of the outer (objective)world, nor that which is conscious of both, nor that which is a mass of consciousness. It is not simple consciousness nor isIt unconsciousness. It is unperceived, unrelated, incomprehensible, uninferable, unthinkable, and indescribable. Theessence of the Consciousness manifesting as the self [in the three states], It is the cessation of all phenomena; It is allpeace, all bliss, and non—dual. That is what is known as the Fourth (Turiya). This is Atman, and this has to be realized.8. The same Atman [explained before as being endowed with four quarters] is now described from the standpoint of thesyllable AUM. AUM, too, divided into parts, is viewed from the standpoint of letters. The quarters [of Atman] are the sameas the letters of AUM, and the letters are the same as the quarters. The letters are A, U, and M.9. Vaisvanara Atman, whose sphere of activity is the waking state, is A, the first letter [of AUM], on account of his all—pervasiveness or on account of his being the first. He who knows this obtains all desires and becomes first [among thegreat].10. Taijasa Atman, whose sphere of activity is the dream state is U, the second letter [of AUM], on account of hissuperiority or intermediateness. He who knows this attains a superior knowledge, receives equal treatment from all, andfinds in his family no one ignorant of Brahman.11. Prajna Atman, whose sphere is deep sleep, is M, the third letter [of AUM], because both are the measure and alsobecause in them all become one. He who knows this is able to measure all and also comprehends all within himself.12. The Fourth (Turiya) is without parts and without relationship; It is the cessation of phenomena; It is all good and non—dual. This AUM is verily Atman. He who knows this merges his self in Atman – yea, he who knows this.
1. Visva is all-pervading and experiences the gross. Taijasa experiences the subtle. Prajna is a mass of awareness. It is onewho is known in all three states.2. Visva's "mouth" is in the right eye. Taijasa's is within the mind-organ, Prajna is the space within the heart. - Presentthree ways in the body.3. Visva always enjoys the gross, Taijasa the subtle, Prajna enjoys bliss. Know enjoyment to be threefold.4. The gross satisfies Visva, the subtle Taijasa, and bliss Prajna: know satisfaction to be threefold.5. He who knows the one experiencer and the one object of experience in all the three states is not affected by enjoymentof objects.6. All objects come into being. Prana creates all. Purush creates the separate rays of consciousness.7. Those who dwell on creation consider it a divine miracle. Others imagine it is like a dream or an illusion.8. Some are convinced creation is by the mere will of God. Those who are fascinated by time declare time to be the sourceof all things.9. Others say creation is for God's delight, others that it is for mere sport. But it is the true nature of the Divine One - whatdesire can He have whose every desire is always fulfilled?10. In the matter of the eradication of sorrows, it is the Inexhaustible Non-dual One - the Lord - who rules. Turiya is knownas the all-pervading source of all that is.11. Visva and Taijasa are conditioned by both cause and effect, prajna by cause alone. Neither exists in Turiya.
12. Prajna knows nothing of self or non-self, neither true nor false. Turiya is forever and the all-seer.13. Non-cognition of duality is common the Prajna and Turiya. But Prajna is associated with the causal state of sleep, andthat does not exist in Turiya.14. Both the first two {Visva and Taijasa} are both associated with dream and sleep, Prajna is the state of dreamlesssleep. Those who know see neither sleep nor dream in Turiya.15. Dream is erroneous cognition, sleep the absence of awareness of reality. When these two errors are removed, Turiya isattained.16. When the soul sleeping under the influence of beginningless Maya is awakened, it realises the unoriginated, sleepless,dreamless non-duality.17. If the phenomenal world were real, it would undoubtedly vanish. All this duality is mere Maya. Non-duality is thesupreme reality.18. If the multiplicity were imagined, it would vanish. Such talk is merely for instruction. On knowing, duality ceases.19. When Visva's identity with "A" is intended, correspondence in terms of being the first [adi] as well as correspondencein terms of being all-pervading [apti-samanyam] is foregrounded.20. When Taijasa's identity with "U" is understood its correspondence in terms of superiority [utkarsa] is clearly seen asalso in terms of intermediacy [ubhayatvam].21. When Prajna's identity with "M" is understood the obvious point of correspondence is Measure and being that in whichall things Merge.22. Whoever has unshakeable knowledge of the correspondences of the three states is a great sage deserving the worshipand veneration of all beings.23. By the sound "A" one attains Visva, by the sound "U" one attains Taijasa, the sound "M" one attains Prajna. In thesoundless there is no attainment.24. The word "AUM" should be known foot by foot. The "feet" are undoubtedly the letters. Grasping "AUM" foot by footthere is nothing else one should think of.25. The mind should be absorbed in AUM. AUM is Brahman, the fearless. One who is absorbed in AUM is totally devoid of fear.26. AUM is indeed the Lower Brahman. AUM is also admitted to be the Supreme Brahman. AUM is uncaused, integral,unique, free from effects, changeless.27. AUM is truly the beginning, the middle and the end of all. Knowing AUM in this way, one attains immediately.28. Know AUM as the Lord indwelling the hearts of all. The man of discrimination realised AUM is all-pervading; he doesnot grieve.29. He is the true sage who knows AUM - the soundless, yet of infinite sounds - the auspicious reality where all dualityceases, - He, and no other!
BOOK II: ILLUSION (Vaitathya Prakarana)
1. The wise declare all objects seen in dreams to be unreal because (i) of their location within, and (ii) their confinement.2. Besides, one does not actually go to places to have a look - there's no time for that! And when he wakes up, thedreamer never finds himself in that place.3. Moreover, the non-existence of the chariot etc. is asserted in Scripture on logical grounds. The wise say that scriptureitself reaffirms the unreality reason establishes.4. Just as dream objects are unreal, so, and for the same reason, objects perceived in the waking state are also unreal. The only difference is the restriction (of dream objects) to an interior location.5. The similarity of their different objects offers a commonplace reason for the wise to identify the waking state and thedreaming state.6. What does not exist in the beginning and does not exist at the end certainly does not in the middle! But like illusions,they seem real.7. Their usefulness is contradicted in the dream. {i.e. in a dream the things of waking life are useless.} So, since theyhave a beginning and an end, they are rightly held to be unreal.8. Unfamiliar objects are merely the product of a specific state - it is just the same as in the case of celestial beings! Heexperiences them by going there just as a well-instructed person here does.
9. In the dream state too, what is imagined by inner consciousness is unreal, but what is perceived by the outerconsciousness is real - but in both cases what is perceived is unreal.10. In the waking state too, what is imagined by the inner consciousness is unreal and whatever is perceived by outerconsciousness is real - but reason dictates that both are unreal.11. If all objects in both states are unreal, who is it who is aware of these objects and who devises them?12. Self-luminous Atman, by the power of its own Maya imagines itself in itself. He alone is aware of the objects. This is theconclusion of the Vedanta.13. The Lord gives diversity to the mundane things that exist in his mind. Turning His mind outwards the Lord thusimagines well-defined things.14. Internal things that last only so long as the thought of them lasts and equally things perceived in relation to two pointsof time are all mere imaginations. There is nothing else to distinguish them.15. The objects that exist unmanifested within the mind and those that exist manifested externally are all mereimagination. The difference between them rises only from differences in the sense organs.16. First He imagines the individual soul, then the various external and subjective objects. And memory accords withknowledge.17. Just as in the dark a rope whose nature has not been fully ascertained is imagined to be various different things suchas a snake, a line of water and so forth; in exactly the same way the Self is imagined in various different ways.18. When the rope is realised to be a rope, all illusions about it cease, and only the rope remains. Realisation of the Self is just the same.19. It is imagined to be (identical with) Prana {the life force} or other eternal realities. This is the Maya of the Divine One,by which He Himself is deluded.20. Those who know prana identify It with Prana. Those who know the elements identify It with the elements. Those whoknow the qualities identify It with the qualities. Those who know the categories identify It with the categories.21. Those who know the "feet" identify It with the "feet." those who know the sense-objects identify It with the sense-objects. Those who know the worlds identify It with the worlds. those who know the gods identify It with the gods.22. Those who know the Vedas identify It with the Vedas. Those who know the sacrifices identify It with the sacrifices. Those who know the enjoyer identify It with the enjoyer. Those who know the object of enjoyment identify It with theobject of enjoyment.23. Knowers of the subtle identify It with the subtle. Those who know the gross identify It with the gross. those who knowthe god with forms identify It with a form, those who know the formless identify It with the Void.24. Students of time identify It with time. Those who know space call It space. Disputers identify It with disputation.Cosmologists identify It with the fourteen worlds.25. Knowers of the mind-organ identify It with the mind-organ. Knowers of intelligence identify It with intelligence.Knowers of consciousness identify It with consciousness. Knowers of righteousness or unrighteousness identify It with oneor the other.26. Some say reality is constituted of twenty-five principles, some of twenty-six. Some say It consists of thirty-onecategories, there are even some who believe they are infinite!27. Those who know human pleasures identify It with such pleasures. Those who know the stages of life identify It withthem. Grammarians identify It with the male, the female or the neuter! - others identify It with the transcendent or thenon-transcendent.28. Knowers of creation identify It with creation. Knowers of dissolution identify It with dissolution. Knowers of subsistenceidentify It with subsistence. But all these notions are merely imagined in the Self!29. Whatever may be displayed, that is the thing one sees. One becomes identified with it and satisfied by it. Engrossed init he becomes absorbed in it.30. Though this One is non-different from these, yet It is identified as separate. Whoever knows this can interpretunhesitatingly. {interpret the Veda?}31. The one knowledgeable in Vedanta sees the entire universe as just like a dream or a conjuring trick or a city in the sky.32. There is no cessation, no coming-to-be, none in bondage, no seeker after liberation and no-one liberated. This is theabsolute truth. [paramartha.]33. It is conceived of both as the Non-dual and as unreal things, and the things are conceived as in the Non-dual! Non-duality, therefore, is the auspicious. {the word in the text is "shiva" - auspicious, pleasant, blissful ...}34. From the standpoint of the Self the world does not exist; nor does it exist as independent - neither differentiated nornon-differentiated. This is what the wise know.

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