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Population Genetics

Population Genetics

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Published by Mahathir Mohmed
...how to determine allele and genotype frequencies in a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
...how to determine allele and genotype frequencies in a population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Mahathir Mohmed on Dec 10, 2008
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11/10/2012

 
BBS 1134 GENETICSLAB EXERCISE
Population Genetics
Objectives
1.
To enable student to understand how to determine allele and genotype frequencies in apopulation in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
2.
To demonstrate the effect of one generation of migration on allele and genotype in theconglomerate generation.
3.
To study the effect of one generation of selection on allele and genotype frequencies.
Introduction
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium states that under certain conditions, after one generation of random mating, the genotype frequencies at a single gene locus will become fixed at a particularequilibrium value.The conditions are:
Infinite population size (or sufficiently large so as to minimize the effect of genetic drift.
No natural selection.
No mutation.
No migration/gene flow.
Random mating within a single population.
Is sexually reproducing, either monoecians & dioecian. 
Material
Yellow (Dhal bean), White (Soy bean), Black (black pepper)
Experiment
 Autosomal Allele
1.
100 Dhal beans and 20 black peppers were prepared, mixed together.
2.
The seeds were randomly paired.
3.
The results obtained were examined.
4.
Step 1 to 3 was repeated to examine F2.T: p= 100/200 = 0.83T: q= 20/200 = 0.17
Results
F1 Generation
GenotypeObservedExpected(Obs-Exp)²Exp
TT41p² (60) = 410Tt172pq (60) = 170tt2q² (60) = 20Total60600 
 
F2 Generation
GenotypeObservedExpected(Obs-Exp)²Exp
TT39p² (60) = 410.098Tt212pq (60) = 170.941tt0q² (60) = 22.00Total603.039Form the result, x
2,
were obtained, it shows that it follows the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.
Multiple Allele
1.
100 Dhal beans, 50 soy bean and 20 black peppers were prepared and mixed together.
2.
The seeds were randomly paired up.
3.
The result obtained was examined. I
A
: blackI
A
= (20/170)
p= 0.118I
B
: whiteI
B
= (50/170)
q = 0.29l: yellowl = (100/170)
r = 0.59
ResultsGenotypeObservedExpected(Obs- Exp)
2
 Exp
I
A
I
A
2(0.12)
2
(85)= 11.000I
A
i82(0.12) (0.59)= 121.333I
B
I
B
8(0.29)
2
(85)= 70.143I
B
i262(0.29) (0.59) (85)= 290.310I
A
I
B
92(0.120 (0.29) (85)= 61.500i i32(0.59)
2
(85)= 300.133TOTAL85From the result, we can conclude that the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is followed.
 
Migration
 
75
 
p
d
= 160 yellow p
r
= 40 yellow
 
q
d
= 40 white p
r
= 160 white
1.
160 Dhal beans (yellow) and 40 soy beans (white) were prepared and mixed together torepresent the donor. 75 seeds from donor were transferred up to recipient.
2.
Seeds were randomly paired up from the conglomerate population and the results wereexamined.
ResultsAllele frequencies inrecipient populationInitial genotypefrequenciesNew allelefrequencies inconglomeratepopulationNew genotypefrequencies inconglomerate
p = 0.2 (yellow)p² = 0.04P
c
= (72/250)p² = 0.083q = 0.8 (white)2pq = 0.322pq = 0.410q² = 0.64
c
= (178/250)q² = 0.507From the results obtained, we can conclude this generation obeys the Hardy-Weinbergequilibrium.
Natural Selection
1.
100 Dhal beans and 100 soy beans were prepared and mixed together.
2.
Beans were randomly paired.
3.
Lethal alleles (heterozygous) were eliminated and the remaining alleles were counted.
4.
From the F1 generation, the seeds were mixed and randomly paired up.
5.
The F2 generation alleles were counted and the results were examined.100 yellow (W
AA
)100 white (W
aa
)Lethal gene (W
Aa
)
 p
d
= 0.8
 
= 0.2 p
= 0.2
 
= 0.8

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