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Why Websites Get Hacked

Why Websites Get Hacked



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Published by manish88
Have u ever gav a thot to "why actually websites get hacked?" wat r teh reasons? If not just look at this...u will get ur answers!!
Have u ever gav a thot to "why actually websites get hacked?" wat r teh reasons? If not just look at this...u will get ur answers!!

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Published by: manish88 on Dec 10, 2008
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WHY WEBSITES GET HACKED???Below you will find list of top 10 web vulnerabilities classified by OWASP, hereis also description of the problem and some examples.I will just give you the list in case you missed it before, i will not comment onany of these as there is already hot discussion about this matter on severalsites/forums.So here it starts:1. Cross site scripting (XSS)The problem: The most prevalent and pernicious Web application security
 vulnerability, XSS flaws happen when an application sends user data to a Webbrowser without first validating or encoding the content. This lets hackersexecute malicious scripts in a browser, letting them hijack user sessions, defaceWeb sites, insert hostile content and conduct phishing and malware attacks.Attacks are usually executed with JavaScript, letting hackers manipulate anyaspect of a page. In a worst-case scenario, a hacker could steal information andimpersonate a user on a banks Web site, according to Snyder.
Real-world example: PayPal was targeted last year when attackers redirected PayPalvisitors to a page warning users their accounts had been compromised. Victims wereredirected to a phishing site and prompted to enter PayPal login information,Social Security numbers and credit card details. PayPal said it closed thevulnerability in June 2006.How to protect users: Use a whitelist to validate all incoming data, which rejectsany data thats not specified on the whitelist as being good. This approach is the
 opposite of blacklisting, which rejects only inputs known to be bad. Additionally,use appropriate encoding of all output data. Validation allows the detection of
 attacks, and encoding prevents any successful script injection from running in thebrowser, OWASP says.
2. Injection flawsThe problem: When user-supplied data is sent to interpreters as part of a commandor query, hackers trick the interpreter which interprets text-based commands
 into executing unintended commands. Injection flaws allow attackers to create,
 read, update, or delete any arbitrary data available to the application, OWASP
 writes. In the worst-case scenario, these flaws allow an attacker to completely
 compromise the application and the underlying systems, even bypassing deeplynested firewalled environments.
Real-world example: Russian hackers broke into a Rhode Island government Web siteto steal credit card data in January 2006. Hackers claimed the SQL injectionattack stole 53,000 credit card numbers, while the hosting service provider claimsit was only 4,113.How to protect users: Avoid using interpreters if possible. If you must invoke an
 interpreter, the key method to avoid injections is the use of safe APIs, such asstrongly typed parameterized queries and object relational mapping libraries,
 OWASP writes.
3. Malicious file executionThe problem: Hackers can perform remote code execution, remote installation ofrootkits, or completely compromise a system. Any type of Web application isvulnerable if it accepts filenames or files from users. The vulnerability may bemost common with PHP, a widely used scripting language for Web development.Real-world example: A teenage programmer discovered in 2002 that Guess.com wasvulnerable to attacks that could steal more than 200,000 customer records from theGuess database, including names, credit card numbers and expiration dates. Guessagreed to upgrade its information security the next year after being investigatedby the Federal Trade Commission.How to protect users: Dont use input supplied by users in any filename for
 server-based resources, such as images and script inclusions. Set firewall rulesto prevent new connections to external Web sites and internal systems.4. Insecure direct object referenceThe problem: Attackers manipulate direct object references to gain unauthorizedaccess to other objects. It happens when URLs or form parameters containreferences to objects such as files, directories, database records or keys.Banking Web sites commonly use a customer account number as the primary key, andmay expose account numbers in the Web interface.References to database keys are frequently exposed, OWASP writes. An attacker
 can attack these parameters simply by guessing or searching for another valid key.Often, these are sequential in nature.
Real-world example: An Australian Taxation Office site was hacked in 2000 by auser who changed a tax ID present in a URL to access details on 17,000 companies.The hacker e-mailed the 17,000 businesses to notify them of the security breach.How to protect users: Use an index, indirect reference map or another indirectmethod to avoid exposure of direct object references. If you cant avoid direct
 references, authorize Web site visitors before using them5. Cross site request forgeryThe problem: Simple and devastating, this attack takes control of victims
 browser when it is logged onto a Web site, and sends malicious requests to the Webapplication. Web sites are extremely vulnerable, partly because they tend toauthorize requests based on session cookies or remember me functionality. Banks
 are potential targets.Ninety-nine percent of the applications on the Internet are susceptible to cross
 site request forgery, Williams says. Has there been an actual exploit where
 someones lost money? Probably the banks dont even know. To the bank, all it
 looks like is a legitimate transaction from a logged-in user.
Real-world example: A hacker known as Samy gained more than a million friends on
 MySpace.com with a worm in late 2005, automatically including the message Samy is
 my hero in thousands of MySpace pages. The attack itself may not have been that

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