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Aristotle - Politics, Oxford Translation

Aristotle - Politics, Oxford Translation

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Aristotle
POLITICS
TranslationB. JowettIn: BARNES (Ed.)
The complete Works of Aristotle
. The RevisedOxford Translation, Volume 1, Bollingen Series LXXI, Princeton:Princeton University Press, 1991: p. 1986-2129.
 
 BOOK I.................................................................................... 3BOOK II................................................................................. 19BOOK III ............................................................................... 44BOOK IV............................................................................... 68BOOK V ................................................................................ 91BOOK VI............................................................................. 118BOOK VII............................................................................ 129BOOK VIII .......................................................................... 152
 
 BOOK I 
[Bk. 1 1252a1-1252a8] 1 · Every state is a community of some kind, and everycommunity is established with a view to some good; for everyone always acts inorder to obtain that which they think good. But, if all communities aim at somegood, the state or political community, which is the highest of all, and whichembraces all the rest, aims at good in a greater degree than any other, and at thehighest good.[Bk. 1 1252a9-1252a16] Some people think that the qualifications of a statesman,king, householder, and master are the same, and that they differ, not in kind, butonly in the number of their subjects. For example, the ruler over a few is called amaster; over more, the manager of a household; over a still larger number, astatesman or king, as if there were no difference between a great household and asmall state. The distinction which is made between the king and the statesman isas follows: When the government is personal, the ruler is a king; when, accordingto the rules of the political science, the citizens rule and are ruled in turn, then heis called a statesman.[Bk. 1 1252a17-1252a23] But all this is a mistake, as will be evident to any onewho considers the matter according to the method which has hitherto guided us.As in other departments of science, so in politics, the compound should always beresolved into the simple elements or least parts of the whole. We must thereforelook at the elements of which the state is composed, in order that we may see inwhat the different kinds of rule differ from one another, and whether anyscientific result can be attained about each one of them.[Bk. 1 1252a24-1252b9] 2 · He who thus considers things in their first growthand origin, whether a state or anything else, will obtain the clearest view of them.In the first place there must be a union of those who cannot exist without eachother; namely, of male and female, that the race may continue (and this is a unionwhich is formed, not of choice, but because, in common with other animals andwith plants, mankind have a natural desire to leave behind them an image of themselves), and of natural ruler and subject, that both may be preserved. For thatwhich can foresee by the exercise of mind is by nature lord and master, and thatwhich can with its body give effect to such foresight is a subject, and by nature aslave; hence master and slave have the same interest. Now nature hasdistinguished between the female and the slave. For she is not niggardly, like thesmith who fashions the Delphian knife for many uses; she makes each thing for asingle use, and every instrument is best made when intended for one and not for many uses. But among barbarians no distinction is made between women andslaves, because there is no natural ruler among them: they are a community of slaves, male and female. That is why the poets say,--

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