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A Natural Disaster is the Consequence of a Natural Hazard

A Natural Disaster is the Consequence of a Natural Hazard



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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: AMIN BUHARI ABDUL KHADER on Dec 10, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Natural CalamitiesNatural Calamities
In India, we have various kinds of natural disasters take place. Thefollowings are the common natural disasters, which occur very often atdifferentparts of the country.
Drought is perhaps the manifestation of desertification, which may bebecause of unprecedented soil erosion, large scale deforestation and abruptchange in micro-climate thereby increasing the temperature and reducingrainfalletc., ultimately leads to fall of groundwater level and hence, loss of agriculturalproductivity of the land, due to lack of water resources. Since, IndianAgricultureis mostly rain-fed, the occurrences of Droughts are common at the differentparts of the country.
When it rains heavily in the catchments of rivers and there is no dam,especially during monsoon, the rivers flood. Like drought, occurrence of floodisalso quite common in the various parts of the country.
 The geological strata of the country belong to Gondwana land-mass; which iscomparatively new, younger and unstable geological formation. There arestillmany parts of the country under earthquakes-prone-regions. If history wouldbereferred, there are many severe earthquakes had shacked the backbone of thecountry; the recent one is being the earthquake of Bhuj at the state of Gujarat. The great Himalayan Mountain range, which belong to comparatively theyounger geological formations, which is still undergoing morphologicalchanges,the construction of Tehri Dam, therefore, is a great-threat to the Garhwalregionof the Himalayas.
Due to low pressure in the atmosphere and frequent formation of whirls;cyclones take place frequently at the eastern coast of India. In the Bay of Bengalof Indian Ocean, these Low- pressure Whirls are formed and gets transmittedtothe coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. The recent super-cycloneatOrissa in October, 1999 took away the life of more than 25,000 people,
Natural Calamities
destroyed the properties of more than thousands billion dollars and morethan amillion of people rendered jobless. Their livelihood security of the commonmasswas also got severely threatened.
Hot waves
In recent days, India has got highly affected by a new form of naturalcalamities i.e flowing of hot waves again in the east coast, killing thethousands of people in the Northen and Eartern parts of the country like,Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. Theflow of hot waves is also known as ‘Sun-stroke,’ which in fact, is common inour country. In Orissa, alone about 151 people died of “ Sun-stock “ in 1999. The worst sufferers are physically weaker persons, Old men and women andthe children.
Cold Waves
 The incidents of death due to cold waves occurs in higher and lesserHimalayas especially in the States of Uttranchal, Sikkim, Himachal Pradeshand Northen Parts of West Bengal including Darjiling.In addition, there are also other natural calamities such as Tornado, Spiraltide Whirls etc, which occur very often in our country.
A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard (e.g. volcanic eruption,earthquake, or landslide) which affects human activities. Human vulnerability,exacerbated by the lack of planning or appropriate emergency management,leads to financial, environmental or human losses. The resulting loss depends onthe capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, their resilience.[1] This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur whenhazards meet vulnerability".[2] A natural hazard will hence never result in anatural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes inuninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently been disputed becausethe events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement.
An earthquake
(also known as a tremor or temblor) is the resultof a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves.Earthquakes are recorded with a seismometer, also known as a seismograph. The moment magnitude of an earthquake is conventionally reported, or therelated and mostly obsolete Richter magnitude, with magnitude 3 or lowerearthquakes being mostly imperceptible and magnitude 7 causing seriousdamage over large areas. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modifiedMercalli scale. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves byshaking and sometimes displacing the ground. When a large earthquakeepicenter is located offshore, the seabed sometimes suffers sufficientdisplacement to cause a tsunami. The shaking in earthquakes can also triggerlandslides and occasionally volcanic activity. In its most generic sense, the wordearthquake is used to describe any seismic event—whether a natural
Natural Calamities
phenomenon or an event caused by humans—that generates seismic waves.Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but also byvolcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. Anearthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus or hypocenter. The termepicenter refers to the point at ground level directly above this.
Naturally occurring earthquakes
 Fault typesTectonic earthquakes will occur anywhere within the earth wherethere is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation alonga fault plane. In the case of transform or convergent type plate boundaries,which form the largest fault surfaces on earth, they will move past each othersmoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities alongthe boundary that increase the frictional resistance. Most boundaries do havesuch asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behaviour. Once theboundary has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads toincreasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around thefault surface. This continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to breakthrough the asperity, suddenly allowing sliding over the locked portion of thefault, releasing the stored energy. This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, andcracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake. This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure isreferred to as the Elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent orless of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of theearthquake's energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth or isconverted into heat generated by friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower theEarth's available elastic potential energy and raise its temperature, though thesechanges are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heatout from the Earth's deep interior.[1]
[edit] Earthquake fault types
Main article: Fault (geology) There are three main types of fault that may cause an earthquake: normal,reverse (thrust) and strike-slip. Normal and reverse faulting are examples of dip-slip, where the displacement along the fault is in the direction of dip andmovement on them involves a vertical component. Normal faults occur mainly inareas where the crust is being extended such as a divergent boundary. Reversefaults occur in areas where the crust is being shortened such as at a convergentboundary. Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the faultslip horizontally past each other ; transform boundaries are a particular type of 

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