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Mathematical Modeling Sequential Gear Shifting Mechanism

# Mathematical Modeling Sequential Gear Shifting Mechanism

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11/21/2012

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MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF A SEQUENTIAL TYPEGEAR SHIFTING MECHANISM OF AN AUTOMOBILETRANSMISSION
By Priyanshu AgarwalDesign Engineer, R&D, Transmission Division,Bajaj Auto Ltd.
ABSTRACT:
There are numerous variables involved in the design of a sequential type gearshifting mechanism. In order to judge the effectiveness of such a mechanism it is essential todevelop a mathematical model that can quantify it. In this paper a mathematical model of asequential type gear shifting mechanism is developed. The mathematical model deals with theforces acting within the system while it is under a static equilibrium. Further, the efficacies of twosuch mechanisms are then evaluated for comparison and the superiority of one over the other isproved. In addition to this, a parameter study is then carried out using MATLAB to individuallyassess the effect of each parameter on the output so as to provide a mathematical rationale at thedesign stage itself.
KEYWORDS:
mathematical model, design variables, drum, fork, fork roller, fork rail, drumtorque, axial force, efficacy of mechanism.
1. INTRODUCTION
Gear Shifting is a sophisticated phenomenon present in all automobiles equipped with manualtransmissions. A mechanism that can effectively handle the issue of gear shifting is always indemand. Apart from shifting the gear, the effort it brings for the driver on the gear shifting lever isvital for a gear shifting mechanism. In order to reduce the effort needed to effect a gear change it isimperative to mathematically evaluate all the design variables linked with the shifting elements.There are two types of shifting elements involved in gear shifting: Internal shifting elements andexternal shifting elements [1].

Internal shifting elements are the elements that are inside the transmission, such as selectorforks, fork rails, drum etc.

External shifting elements are the elements that are outside the transmission such as gearshifting lever, cable controls etc.The mechanism described here consists of internal shifting elements and the mathematical modelpresented deals with the design variables related to these elements.

2. MECHANISM DESCRIPTION
Figure 2.1 An illustration of the Sequential Gear Shifting Mechanism
2.1 Construction
The mechanism shown above consists of the following major components:

Drum (Surface Cam)

Forks

Fork Rail

Fork Roller (sits on fork lug)

Star Wheel

Shift Lever-1 (Guitar shaped with a welded splined shaft)

Shifter Lever-2 (Cross Lever)

Shift Lever-1 Torsion Spring

Tension SpringFork RailFork Fork RollerDrumStar WheelShift Lever-2Shift Lever-1Tension SpringTorsion Spring

The Fork legs rests on the gear collar and the fork is constrained to move on the fork rail. Theinterface between the fork and the rail can be provided with plain bearings which can significantlyreduce the coefficient of friction between the rail and the fork. The material used for such plainbearings is Daidyne for which the coefficient of friction lies in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 [2] ascompared to 0.16 for a lubricated steel to steel contact. The increase in friction increases the drumtorque significantly which can reduce the mechanism efficiency of torque to force conversion.Further the fork is provided with a lug that protrudes from its head. The head is also provided witha roller that can roll on the profile carved on the drum, which is a surface cam with a groove. Theroller is provided for converting sliding friction to rolling friction between the fork lug and thedrum groove. In addition to this, the drum is provided with a star wheel having projected lugs on itsfront face on which the shift lever-2 rests. Shift lever-2 is pivoted on shift lever-1 and is connectedto it with a tension spring. Shift lever-1 consists of a guitar shaped sheet body with a splined shaftwelded to it. A torsion spring is provided on shift lever-1 so as to reposition the lever after shiftingthe gear.
2.2 Working
The shift lever-1 is rotated with the help of a push-pull type wire. As shift lever-1 rotates, it rotatesthe shift lever-2 which in turn rotates the star wheel with a fixed angle (60 degrees). Since, the starwheel is bolted with the drum, it is also indexed with 60 degrees. Due to this fixed rotation of thedrum the forks engaged in the grooves on the drum surface, with the help of a roller, are movedaxially on the shifter rail. This axial movement of the fork leads to the axial movement of theshifting sleeve. The desired direction of the fork movement can be governed by engraving acorresponding groove on the drum surface. Now the magnitude of drum toque required depends onthe various parameters involved e.g. groove ramp angle, drum radius, shifter rail diameter, fork dimensions etc. The shifting feel is hampered in case the required drum torque exceeds a certainvalue. In addition to this, in order to convert this system into an automated shifting mechanism thedrum torque required should be minimized so as to actuate the mechanism with the smallestpossible actuator.Considering the importance of drum torque required, it is imperative to develop a mathematicalmodel so as to study the influence of the various design variables involved and thus, minimize thedrum toque.
3. THE DEVELOPED MATHEMATICAL MODEL
The developed mathematical model is a simplified form of the actual mechanism as described insection 2. Only the following components are selected for developing the model:1.

Drum2.

Fork Roller3.

Fork 4.

Fork RailFurther since at a time only one fork will come into action, hence only one fork is considered inthe mathematical model.