Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
5Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Biochemistry of Fatty Acids

Biochemistry of Fatty Acids

Ratings:

5.0

(3)
|Views: 2,016 |Likes:
Published by Mahathir Mohmed
Fatty Acids, common name for a group of organic acids that includes the saturated (hydrogenated), straight-chain acids, with a single carboxyl (COOH) group, that are produced by the hydrolysis of fats.
Fatty Acids, common name for a group of organic acids that includes the saturated (hydrogenated), straight-chain acids, with a single carboxyl (COOH) group, that are produced by the hydrolysis of fats.

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Mahathir Mohmed on Dec 11, 2008
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/13/2014

 
Biochemistry of Fatty Acids
WHAT IS FATTY ACID?
Fatty Acids, common name for a group of organic acids that includes the saturated(hydrogenated), straight-chain acids, with a single carboxyl (COOH) group, that are producedby the hydrolysis of fats. The group also includes all other saturated straight-chain acids andacids with a branched chain or cyclic structure. Methanoic (formic) acid, HCOOH, andethanoic (acetic) acid, CH
3
COOH, are the simplest fatty acids
1
.Both have a sour taste, irritatethe skin, and have a sharp smell. Of more complicated structure are butanoic, hexanoic andoctanoic acids, all of which have unpleasant odours. Stearic, palmitic, oleic, and naphthenicacids are greasy materials with little odour. A growing source of fatty acids is tall oil, a by-product of the pinewood used to make paper pulp.Fatty acids are useful in preparing biodegradable detergents, thickeners for paints, andlubricants. Stearic acid is used to combine rubber with other substances, such as pigments,or materials that control the flexibility of rubber products; it is also used in thepolymerization of phenylethene (styrene) and butadiene in making artificial rubber. Newuses for fatty acids include ore flotation and the manufacture of disinfectants, varnish driers,and heat stabilizers for vinyl resins. Fatty acids are also used in plastic products, such ascoatings for wood and metal, and in car parts ranging from air-cleaner housings toupholstery.
FATTY ACIDS IN OILS AND FATS
2
1
http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761576432
2
http://uk.encarta.msn.com/media_121621355/Fatty_Acids_in_Oils_and_Fats.html
 
Biochemistry of Fatty Acids
TYPES
Fatty acids can be saturated
3
and unsaturated, depending on double bonds. In addition, theyalso differ in length. Only unsaturated fatty acid will be discussed in-depth here.UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDIn unsaturated fatty acids, there are two ways the pieces of the hydrocarbon tail can bearranged around a C=C double bond. In
cis
bonds, the two pieces of the carbon chain oneither side of the double bond are either both “up” or both “down,” such that both are onthe same side of the molecule. In
trans
bonds, the two pieces of the molecule are onopposite sides of the double bond, that is, one “up” and one “down” across from each other.Naturally-occurring unsaturated vegetable oils have almost all
cis
bonds, but using oil forfrying causes some of the
cis
bonds to convert to
trans
bonds. If oil is used only once likewhen fry an egg, only a few of the bonds do this so it’s not too bad. However, if oil isconstantly reused, like in fast food French fry machines, more and more of the
cis
bonds arechanged to
trans
until significant numbers of fatty acids with
trans
bonds build up. Thereason this is of concern is that fatty acids with
trans
bonds are carcinogenic, or cancer-causing
4
. The levels of 
trans
fatty acids in highly-processed, lipid-containing products such asmargarine are quite high.
3
Saturated fatty acids have a chain of carbon atoms joined by single bonds, allowing for rotationabout the bonds.
4
 
Trans
-fatty acids do not have the beneficial effects of 
cis
-fatty acids such as glycemic control, energybalance etc. It is therefore recommended (by Danish Nutrition Council) that intakes of 
trans
-fattyacids should not rise above the current average of about 2 per cent of energy intake.
 
Biochemistry of Fatty Acids
MORE ABOUT TRANS FAT
Most
trans
fats are created artificially by a process called hydrogenation. It involves heatingregular vegetable oil and forcing hydrogen atoms onto the polyunsaturated fatty acidmolecules. This process turns the oil into a solid substance and improves the shelf life of thefat.Fully hydrogenating a vegetable oil will make it firm and not create
trans
fats. However, thefirmness of the fat makes it difficult to use in cooking. Partially hydrogenating an oil makesfor a softer product and is still widely used in baking and processing foods. Examples includestick margarine and partially hydrogenated frying oils.
Trans
fats are commonly found indonuts, snack cakes, cookies and processed foods.Artificially created
trans
fats are the unhealthiest of fats, even worse than saturated fat
5
. Eating too many
trans
fats has been linked to increasing your risk of cardiovascular disease.Not all
trans
fats are created in the lab. Small amounts of natural
trans
fats occur in milk andbeef. Conjugated linoleic acid is a well-known natural
trans
fat. The natural
trans
fats do notappear to be as unhealthy as the artificial
trans
fats.
FOODS CONTRIBUTE TO TRANS FATTY ACID INTAKE
6
Milk and cheese18.8NaturalButter5.9NaturalEggs0.9NaturalMeat and meat product10.3NaturalOil and fats35.5Mainly resulting from hydrogenationBiscuits and cakes16.5Mainly resulting from hydrogenationSavoury pies, etc3.5Mainly resulting from hydrogenationChips, French fries4.5Mainly resulting from hydrogenationOthers4.1Mainly resulting from hydrogenationTOTAL100
TRANS FAT AND HEART
Recent studies have suggested that
trans
fatty acids (TFA) have a deleterious effect oncholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease.Ingestion of TFA is implicated in coronary heart disease (CHD) are based on changes inducedin plasma cholesterol levels. Within the range of intakes of 3-11 % of dietary energy there isa dose-response relationship; an increase of 1 % of the total energy intake (at the expense of oleic acid) increased low density lipoproteins (LDL) by 0.04 mmol/l and decreased highdensity lipoproteins (HDL) by 0.013 mmol/l. This amounts to a 1 % reduction in HDL and a 1% increase in LDL. TFA increase LDL to the same extent saturated fatty acid (SFA), but reducethe beneficial HDL. In short,
trans
fatty acids turn out to increase total cholesterol levels andLDL cholesterol levels, and to reduce HDL cholesterol levels.
5
Saturated fats are almost always found in foods that also contain cholesterol, so saturated fats offera "one-two" punch to heart health. On the other hand, trans fatty acids not only increase LDLcholesterol, they also decrease HDL cholesterol
6
Information statement (2007) from Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund, UK

Activity (5)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Hashim Erzouki liked this
Mahmoud Tammam liked this
juanluisserrano liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->