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Using Pesticides in Greenhouses

Using Pesticides in Greenhouses

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Published by Na kamura Nakamura

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Published by: Na kamura Nakamura on Apr 04, 2012
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01/29/2013

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1
Using Pesticidesin Greenhouses
PB 1595
Agricultural Extension Service
The University of Tennessee
 
2
Table of Contents
Pesticide Application
3Spray Application3Spray Application Equipment3Direct-spray versus Fixed-position Sprayers3High-volume versus Low-volume Sprayers4Granular Pesticide Application5
Preparing Pesticides for Application
5Dosage5Adjuvants6Tank Mixes6Water Quality6
Application Technique
6
Calibrating Equipment
6
Pesticide Storage and Disposal
7Storage Construction7Ventilation7Storage Operations7Chemical Shelf Life8Disposal8
Human Safety
8Pesticide Toxicity (LD
50
)8Worker Protection Standards10Worker10Handler10Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)10PPE Definitions11Filters/Cartridges12Restricted Entry Interval (REI)12Early Re-entry13Ventilation Criteria13Notification in Greenhouses13Decontamination Sites13Information at a Central Location13Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)14Worker and Handler Training14
Tables
Table 1. Relationship Between Particle Size andthe Number of Droplets per Square Inch3Table 2. Comparison of the Advantages and Disadvantages of theDifferent Spray Application Methods4Table 3. Methods of Low-Volume Pesticide Application4Table 4. Comparisons Among the Different Spray ApplicationMethods and Equipment5Table 5. Toxicity Categories for the Major Routes of Pesticide Exposure9Table 6. Restricted Entry Intervals (REI) for Insecticides and MiticidesRegistered for Greenhouse Use11
Originally developed by James Faust, former Assistant Professor, Elizabeth Will, former graduate student, Plant Sciences,and Frank A. Hale, Associate Professor 
 
 , Entomology and Plant Pathology
 
3
Using Pesticidesin Greenhouses
T
Pesticide Application
The focus of a pesticide application is to deliverthe pesticide to the target pest (i.e., insect, mite andpathogen). Most pesticides are sprayed onto plantfoliage; however, some pesticides are available ingranular formulations that can be incorporated into thegrowing medium or topdressed on the growing me-dium surface.
Spray Application
When a pesticide is sprayed, the material isdispersed into small droplets. The smaller the droplets,the greater the number of droplets per area of green-house, and the greater the likelihood of hitting thetarget pest (Table 1). Smaller droplets (10 to 50microns) are more likely to contact flying insects(note: one micron equals 0.000004 inch). Droplets thatare 30 to 50 microns are most likely to come intocontact with insects on foliage, while the larger drop-lets (250 to 500 microns) are most useful at contactinginsects in the growing medium. The type of sprayequipment used determines the droplet particle size.
Spray Application Equipment
Several different sprayers are commerciallyavailable to greenhouse operators. Each has its ownbenefits and limitations. There is no one best choice;however, certain sprayers may fit nicely into the pestmanagement programs of different greenhousefacilities.
Frank A. Hale, Associate Professor, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Agricultural Extension Service, University of Tennessee, Raymond A. Cloyd, Assistant Professor, Extension Entomologist, University of Illinois Edward E. Burgess, Professor, Entomology and Plant Pathology, Agricultural Extension Service, University of Tennessee
he objective of using pesticides in greenhouses is to reduce or manage pest populationswithout endangering the lives of greenhouse workers or customers, and without harmingplants. To achieve this goal, it is essential to maximize pesticide exposure to the targetedpests and minimize human pesticide exposure. The first part of this publication will address issuesrelated to pesticide applications, whereas the second part addresses human safety issues.
Table 1. Relationship between Particle Size andthe Number of Droplets per Square Inch
Droplet diameterDroplets per(microns)square inch10123,2192015,40050987100123200154001.910000.13
Direct Spray versusFixed-Position Sprayers
Direct sprayers are manually operated and can beaimed at targeted areas of the greenhouse, while fixed-position sprayers are placed into the greenhouse wherethey function without direct human supervision. Theadvantages and disadvantages of each type of applica-tion method are presented in Table 2.

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