JClin Res Ped Endo
2009;(Suppl1):1–7DOI: 10.4008/jcrpe.v1i1.29©2009Journal of Turkish Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes SocietyPubbiz/Probiz Ltd. ﬁti.
Physiology of Growth Hormone Secretion
Aysun Bideci, Orhun Çamurdan
Gazi University Medical School, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Ankara, Turkey
growth hormone,physiology, secretion
Gazi University MedicalSchool, PediatricEndocrinology Unit, Ankara,Turkey E-mail:email@example.com
Growth hormone (GH) is secreted in a pulsatile fashion from the anterior pituitary gland. Thesynthesis and the secretion of GH are regulated mainly by two hypothalamic neuropeptides, thegrowth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin. A wide variety of physiologicand hormonal factors exert an effect on GH secretion.This paper will review physiology of GH secretion and the factors that regulate it.
Conflict of interest:
Growth hormone (GH) is secreted in apulsatile fashion from the anterior pitu-itary gland. GH has a 191-aminoacid pep-tide structure containing two disulphidebonds. It is found in the circulation in dif-ferent isoforms of which the 20 and therelatively more active 22 kdisoforms arebiologically more important. There are 5known genes related to the GH moleculeof which the GH-N, the main gene, hasthe locus on 17q22-24. The others are theGH-2 (GH-V) coding for placental GH, theCS1 and CS2 coding for the human chori-onic somatomammotropin, and thepseudogene CSP.(1,2,3,4)
GH exists in two forms in the circula-tion, in the free, active form and thebound from which is bound to the growthhormone binding protein (GHBP),(1) without loss of immunoreactivity so thatthe measured GH levels reflect the levelsof both forms.(5)
The synthesis and the secretion of GHare regulated by two hypothalamic neu-ropeptides;the growth hormone-releas-ing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin orthe somatotropin release inhibiting factor.GHRH stimulates both the synthesis andthe release of GH. It is the amplitude andnot the frequency of the pulsatile releasethat is changed. Somatostatin has noeffect on the synthesis but inhibits therelease of GH.(1,2,3,4)In the rat,
administration of somatostatin antibody resulted in an increase of the GH levelsbetween the pulses without an effect onthe freqency of the pulses. In humans, inboth male and female, endogenoussomatostatin suppresses the GH levelsbetween the pulses and the amplitude of the pulses but, again, without a change inthe frequency of the pulses. These obser- vations have led to the conclusion that inthe human the biological role of somato-statin is limited to the adjustment of thequantity of the basal and the pulsatilesecretion of GH without alteration of thepulse rate.(2)
ISSN: 1308-5727Online ISSN: 1308-5735