To limit settlements as indicated, it is necessary to:
Transmit the load of the structure to a soil stratum of sufficient strength.
Spread the load over a sufficiently large area of that stratum to minimize bearing pressure.A shallow single Foundation unit that supports all columns & walls of a structure or parts of a structure may be called
a raft foundation
. A raft foundation is also called as
. They are usually provided for multi-story buildings, overhead water tanks,chimneys, etc. A raft foundation becomes unavoidable in submerged structure, in somemulti-story structures with basement and in retaining walls, etc. The raft foundation isusually designed as a flat slab.Foundation engineering often consider mats when dealing with any of the followingconditions:
The structural loads are so high or the soil conditions so poor thatspread footings would be exceptionally large. As a general rule of thumb,if spread footings would cover more than about one-third of the buildingfootprint area a mat or some type of deep foundation will probability bemore economical,
The soil is very erratic & prone to excessive differential settlements.The structural continuity & flexural strength of a mat will bridge over these irregularities. The same is true of mats on highly expansive soils to prone to differential heaves,
The structural loads are erratic, and thus increase the likelihood of excessive differential settlement. Again, the structural continuity andflexural strength of the mat will absorb these irregularities,
Lateral loads are not uniformly distributed through the structure and thusmay cause differential horizontal movement in spread footing or pile caps.The continuity of a mat will resist such movements,
The uplift loads are larger than spread footings can accommodate. Thegreater weight and continuity of a mat may provide sufficient resistance,and
The bottom of the structure is located below the ground table, sowaterproofing is an important concern. Because mats are monolithic, theyare much easier to waterproof. The weight of the mat also helps resisthydrostatic uplift forces from the groundwater.
In this project; due to the heavy load, earthquake design, and some of theprevious provisions the mat foundation might be used.
Eng Ahmad Al OmariEng Essam GhaithEng Qutaiba Hameedi