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Raft Foundation Analysis and Design Example

Raft Foundation Analysis and Design Example

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Eng Ahmad Al Omari , Eng Essam Ghaith Eng & Qutaiba Hameedi
Eng Ahmad Al Omari , Eng Essam Ghaith Eng & Qutaiba Hameedi

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Published by: Eng Obadah Harastani on Apr 04, 2012
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07/30/2014

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Chapter 
 
6:
 
Design
 
of 
 
Foundations
 
79
 
6.1 INTRODUCTION
The substructure or foundation
is the part of a structure that is usually placed belowthe surface of the ground.Footings and other foundation units transfer the loads from the structure to the soil or rock supporting the structure.Because the soil is generally much weaker than the concrete columns & walls thatmust be supported, the contact area between the soil & the footing is much larger thanthat between the supported member & the footing.The more common types of footings are illustrated in figure (6.1).
Strip footings
or wall footings display essentially one-dimensional action, cantilevering out on each side of the wall.
Spread Footings
are pads that distribute the column load to an area of soilaround the column. These distribute the load in two directions. Sometimes spread footinghave pedestals, are stepped, or are tapered to save materials. A
 pile cap
transmits thecolumn load to a series of piles, which in turn, transmit the load to a strong layer at somedepth below the surface “hard strata”.
Combined footings
transmit the loads from two or more columns to the soil. Such a footing is often used when one column is close to a property line. A
mat or raft foundation
transfers the loads from all the columns in a building to the underlying soil. Mat foundations are used when very weak soils areencountered.The choice of foundation type is selected in consultation with the geotechnicalengineer. Factors to be considered are:
 
The soil strength,
 
The soil type,
 
The variability of the soil type over the area and with increasing depth, and
 
The susceptibility of the soil and the building to deflections.The most basic and most common types are strip, spread, combined footings.
 
Eng Ahmad Al OmariEng Essam GhaithEng Qutaiba Hameedi
 
Chapter 
 
6:
 
Design
 
of 
 
Foundations
 
80
 
Figure
 
6.1:
 
(
Types of Footings
)
 
The two essential requirements in the design of foundation are that the total settlementof the structure be limited to a tolerably small amount and that differential settlement of the various parts of the structure be eliminated as nearly as possible. With respect to possible structural damage, the elimination of differential settlement, i.e., differentamounts of settlement within the same structure, is even more important than limitationson uniform overall settlement.
Eng Ahmad Al OmariEng Essam GhaithEng Qutaiba Hameedi
 
Chapter 
 
6:
 
Design
 
of 
 
Foundations
 
81
 
To limit settlements as indicated, it is necessary to:
 
Transmit the load of the structure to a soil stratum of sufficient strength.
 
Spread the load over a sufficiently large area of that stratum to minimize bearing pressure.A shallow single Foundation unit that supports all columns & walls of a structure or  parts of a structure may be called
a raft foundation
. A raft foundation is also called as
mat  foundation
. They are usually provided for multi-story buildings, overhead water tanks,chimneys, etc. A raft foundation becomes unavoidable in submerged structure, in somemulti-story structures with basement and in retaining walls, etc. The raft foundation isusually designed as a flat slab.Foundation engineering often consider mats when dealing with any of the followingconditions:
 
The structural loads are so high or the soil conditions so poor thatspread footings would be exceptionally large. As a general rule of thumb,if spread footings would cover more than about one-third of the buildingfootprint area a mat or some type of deep foundation will probability bemore economical,
 
The soil is very erratic & prone to excessive differential settlements.The structural continuity & flexural strength of a mat will bridge over these irregularities. The same is true of mats on highly expansive soils to prone to differential heaves,
 
The structural loads are erratic, and thus increase the likelihood of excessive differential settlement. Again, the structural continuity andflexural strength of the mat will absorb these irregularities,
 
Lateral loads are not uniformly distributed through the structure and thusmay cause differential horizontal movement in spread footing or pile caps.The continuity of a mat will resist such movements,
 
The uplift loads are larger than spread footings can accommodate. Thegreater weight and continuity of a mat may provide sufficient resistance,and
 
The bottom of the structure is located below the ground table, sowaterproofing is an important concern. Because mats are monolithic, theyare much easier to waterproof. The weight of the mat also helps resisthydrostatic uplift forces from the groundwater.
In this project; due to the heavy load, earthquake design, and some of theprevious provisions the mat foundation might be used.
 
Eng Ahmad Al OmariEng Essam GhaithEng Qutaiba Hameedi

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