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City of Portland-PPA Frashour Arbitration Award

City of Portland-PPA Frashour Arbitration Award

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09/19/2014

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BEFORE THE ARBITRATOR
In the Matter of the Arbitration Between ))The City of Portland )
ARBITRATOR'S OPINION
 )
AND AWARD
 the Employer ))and )) Grievance ofPortland Police Association ) Ron Frashour)the Association ))
Representatives:For the Employer:
Howard Rubin, Lead CounselJennifer NelsonLittler Mendelson121 SW Morrison St Ste 900Portland OR 97204Stephanie HarperDeputy City Attorney1221 S.W. 4th Avenue, Suite 430Portland, Oregon 97204
For the Association:
Will Aitchison, Lead CounselLaw Offices of Will Aitchison3021 NE BroadwayPortland, OR 97232Anil KariaTedesco Law Group3021 NE BroadwayPortland, OR 97232March 30, 2012
Jane R. Wilkinson
 
Labor Arbitrator/Attorney
PMB 2113 Monroe Pkwy, Ste. PLake Oswego, OR 97035
 
Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. Proceedings.......................................................................................................................1II. Issues.................................................................................................................................1III. Relevant Contract Language and City Policy......................................................................1A. Collective Bargaining Agreement....................................................................................1B. City Policy......................................................................................................................2IV. Summary of the Events Leading to the Fatal Shooting of Aaron Campbell........................4A. Police Dispatched to Sandy Terrace Apartments............................................................5B. Arrival and Positioning of Officers...................................................................................5C. Telephone and Text Contact Made with Mr. Campbell...................................................9D. The Critical Minutes.......................................................................................................13E. The Release of the K-9..................................................................................................21F. The Grievant's Reasons for Shooting Mr. Campbell......................................................22G. Officer Support of Grievant' Decision to Shoot...............................................................24H. Opinion of Police Management Witnesses....................................................................25V. Investigation of the Shooting and Resulting Discipline.......................................................30A. Subsequent Inquiries.....................................................................................................30B. Evidence Concerning the Fairness of the Police Bureau's Investigations......................31VI. Discussion and Analysis....................................................................................................33A. Preliminary Issues.........................................................................................................331. Burden of Proof.........................................................................................................332. The
Graham 
Standard and Portland Rules................................................................343. Other Relevant Case Precedent................................................................................35a) No Post-Hoc Analysis............................................................................................35b) Reasonable Mistake..............................................................................................36c) Furtive Gesture, Reach for a Waistband................................................................37d) Close Cases - Officer May Be Liable.....................................................................404. Whether the Portland Rule is More Stringent than the Constitutional Standard: TheConsideration of Lesser Alternatives to Deadly Force...........................................................435. Testimony Issues.......................................................................................................44a) Whether the Arbitrator Should Discount Grievant's Testimony as Self-Serving......44b) Whether Testimony of Officers at Scene should be Considered Foremost.............45c) The Grievant's Allegedly Inflexible and Rigid Decision-Making..............................46d) The Grievant's Allegedly Shifting Testimony..........................................................486. Importance of Training and the Training Division Report to this Case........................497. Deferral to Management's Determination...................................................................51B. The Reasonableness of the Grievant's Decision to Shoot.............................................521. Relevant Circumstances Prior to Mr. Campbell being Beanbagged...........................53a) Circumstances Indicating Mr. Campbell was not a Threat......................................53b) Circumstances Indicating Mr. Campbell was a Threat............................................54c) Circumstances where the Threat Posed by Mr. Campbell was Debatable.............552. Detailed analysis of the Critical Three Seconds.........................................................57a) Was It Objectively Reasonable to Believe that Mr. Campbell Was Carrying aFirearm when He Emerged from the Apartment?..........................................................57b) How Credible was the Grievant's Stated Observation that Mr. Campbell was makinga Motion of Reaching into his Waistband?.....................................................................59c) Was it Objectively Reasonable to Believe that Mr. Campbell's Reach into hisWaistband was an Attempt to Retrieve a Gun to Shoot at Others?................................62d) Were There Reasonable Alternatives to Grievant's Use of Deadly Force?.............67C. Arbitrator's Conclusion...................................................................................................72VII. Award................................................................................................................................73
 
Witness and Exhibit Lists
Witness and Exhibit Lists
City of Portland Witnesses
Larry O'Dea, Assistant ChiefJohn Robert (Bob) Boylan, Police OfficerJames Quackenbush, Police OfficerRyan Pannell, witness to shootingPaul Meyer, Lead AR 15 instructor and current Special Weapons LeadJenna Peterson, witness to shootingDavid Kemple, Police OfficerRobert King, Lieutenant, formerly Training DivisionJames C. Ferraris, Salem Deputy Chief, formerly Commander North Precinct, PortlandMike Reese, Police ChiefRobert Day, CommanderDerek Rodrigues, LieutenantJames McCabe, Ph.D., Ass't Prof. Crim. Justice, Sacred Heart Univ., Fairfield, CT
 Portland Police Association Witnesses
Matthew McAllister, Police OfficerCraig Andersen, Police OfficerNathan Voeller, Lead Defensive Tactics InstructorRyan Lewton, Police OfficerJohn Birkinbine, SergeantJeff Elias, K-9 OfficerRyan Coffey, Lead Defensive Tactics InstructorTodd Engstrom, Investigator, former Lead Defensive Tactics InstructorMike Stradley, Officer (now West Linn Police Department)Don Livingston, Sergeant, formerly Lead Defensive Tactics InstructorStephanie Rabey, OfficerTyrone Willard, OfficerWilliam John Brady, M.D., (Forensic Pathologist)Josh Bocchino, Field Training CoordinatorLiani Reyna, SergeantRon Frashour, GrievantWilliam Lewinski, Ph.D., Director, Force Science InstituteW. Ken Katsaris, Law Enforcement Consultant/Trainer
Joint Exhibits
Exh. J-1 Collective Bargaining Agreement, 2010-2013Exh. J-2 (not submitted)Exh. J-3 Grievance, Ron Frashour, November 30, 2010Exh. J-4 Grievance, Step 1 Response from City, December 8, 2010Exh. J-5 Grievance, Referral to Step 3, December 21, 2010Exh. J-6 Grievance, Step 3 Response from City, January 14, 2011Exh. J-7 Grievance, Referral to Arbitration, January 21, 2011Exh. J-8 Termination Letter, Ron Frashour, November 8, 2010Exh. J-9 Detectives Investigation, various datesExh. J-10 Grand Jury Transcripts, various datesExh. J-11 Internal Affairs Investigation, various datesExh. J-12 Directive 1010.10, Current, January 2010Exh. J-13 Directive 1010.20, 2007 Version, January 2007Exh. J-14 Directive 1010.20, Current, January 2010Exh. J-15 Directive 315.30, Current, January 2010Exh. J-16 Suspension Letter, Ryan Lewton, November 8, 2010Exh. J-17 Suspension Letter, John Birkinbine, November 8, 2010Exh. J-18 Suspension Letter, Liani Reyna, November 8, 2010Exh. Jt-19 City of Portland Discipline Rule 5.01Exh. Jt-20
Graham v. Connor 
, 490 U.S. 386

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