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Table Of Contents

Section headings
Diagrams and tables
1: How to use this Guide
2: Calculating the safe capacity of a sports ground
2.6 Seated accommodation – calculating the holding capacity
Diagram 2.1 Calculating the capacity of seated accommodation
Diagram 2.2 Calculating the capacity of standing accomodation
3: Management – responsibility and planning for safety
3.16 Responsibility for training and competence
3.18 Suggested headings for contingency plans
3.28 Safety in the wider management context
3.32 Commercial or non-sporting activities
4: Management – stewarding
4.16 Stewards’ documentation – safety handbook
5: Management – structures, installations and components
5.1 Definitions
5.2 Maintenance and the (P) factor
5.3 Good housekeeping
5.4 Structures
5.5 Structural dynamics for permanent structures
5.6 Construction work at existing grounds
5.7 Anti-vandalism
5.8 The importance of inspections and tests
5.9 Inspections and tests 24 hours before an event
5.10 Inspections and tests before an event
5.11 Inspections during the event
5.12 Inspections after the event
5.13 Annual inspection
5.14 Structural appraisal
5.16 Plans and specifications
6: Circulation – general
6.1 Planning and management of circulation
6.2 Creating a balanced system
6.3 Multi-functional circulation areas
6.4 Zoning of circulation routes
6.5 Design of circulation routes and areas
Diagram 6.1 New construction – zonal planning
6.6 Management of circulation routes
6.7 Management policies and circulation
6.8 Access and egress for emergency vehicles
7: Circulation – ingress
7.1 The need to count
7.2 Counting on entry
7.3 Computerised monitoring
7.4 Entry capacity
7.5 Factors affecting the entry capacity
7.6 Calculating the entry capacity
7.7 Providing a sufficient number of turnstiles or entry points
7.8 Design and management of entrances and entry routes
7.9 Providing clear information
7.10 Admission policies
7.11 Crowd build-up
8: Circulation – vertical circulation
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Stairways and gangways
8.3 Design of stairways
8.4 Flights of stairways
8.5 Dimensions of stairways
8.6 Barriers and handrails – definitions
8.7 Barriers on stairways
8.8 Handrails for stairways and ramps
Diagram 8.1 Barriers and handrails on stairways
8.9 Controlling the flow at the head of stairways
8.10 Discharge from exit stairways
Diagram 8.2 Approaches to the head of stairways
8.12 Passenger lifts
8.13 Escalators
9: Circulation – concourses and vomitories
9.1 Concourses and vomitories
9.2 Concourses and safety
9.3 Concourses and fire safety
9.4 Size of concourses
9.5 Circulation on concourses
9.6 Design of concourses and related facilities
9.7 Management of concourses
9.8 Prevention of overcrowding
9.9 Vomitories
10: Circulation – egress and emergency evacuation
10.1 Safety issues
10.2 Basic design principles
10.3 Factors in design and management
10.4 Exit route widths and reservoir areas
10.5 Rates of passage – method of calculation
10.6 Recommended rates of passage
10.7 Egress time
10.8 Design and management of exit systems
10.9 Emergency evacuation time
10.10 Design of emergency evacuation routes
10.11 Management of emergency evacuation routes
10.12 Management of evacuation of spectators with disabilities
10.13 Use of the pitch or area of activity for emergency evacuation
10.14 Provision of gates or openings in a pitch perimeter barrier
10.15 Discounting an exit route for calculation purposes
10.16 Exit doors and gates
10.17 Electronic securing systems
11: Barriers
11.1 Definition and categories of barriers
11.2 Barrier design and loading
Table 11.1 Horizontal imposed loads for barriers
Table 11.2 Horizontal imposed loads for crush barriers
Table 11.3 Horizontal imposed loads for barriers in spectator galleries
Diagram 11.1 Barrier design loads, heights and positions
Diagram 11.2 Barriers in front of and behind seating
11.3 Barrier fixings
11.4 Barrier heights
11.5 Barriers and sightline considerations
11.6 Crush barriers – main design criteria
11.7 Crush barriers – factors determining the horizontal imposed load
11.8 Crush barriers – continuous crush barrier configuration
11.9 Crush barriers – non-continuous crush barrier configuration
11.10 Crush barriers – height and positioning
Diagram 11.3 Continuous crush barrier configuration
11.11 Crush barriers – construction and strengthening
11.12 Crush barriers – factors affecting the holding capacity
Diagram 11.4 Positioning and height of crush barriers
Diagram 11.5 Crush barrier strengthening
11.13 Barriers in spectator galleries
11.14 Pitch and activity area perimeter barriers
11.15 Pitch and activity area perimeter barriers and standing areas
11.16 Temporary barriers
11.17 Other load-bearing barriers
11.18 Barriers and risk assessment
11.19 Barrier tests – personnel and equipment
11.20 Barrier tests – records
11.21 Barrier tests – methodology
11.22 Barrier tests – bedding-in cycle
11.23 Barrier tests – proof cycle
11.24 Barrier tests – further considerations
11.25 Barrier tests resulting in failure
12: Spectator accommodation – seating
12.1 The provision of seated accommodation
12.2 Viewing standards
12.3 Sightlines
Diagram 12.1 Sightlines for seated spectators
Diagram 12.2 Effect on sightlines on spectators standing in seated areas
12. 4 Sightlines for wheelchair users
12.7 Management strategies towards restricted viewing
12.8 Provision of cover
12.9 Gangways in seated areas – general requirements
12.10 Lateral gangways in seated areas
12.11 Radial gangways in seated areas
12.12 The importance of seat dimensions
12.13 Seat widths and seating row depths
12.14 Clearways
Diagram 12.4 Seat and seating row dimensions
12.15 Useful seat depths
12.16 Number of seats in rows
12.17 Seat design
12.18 Design of wheelchair spaces
12.19 Assessment of (P) factors for seated areas
12.20 Assessment of (S) factors for seated areas
13: Spectator accommodation – standing
13.1 The provision of standing accommodation
13.2 The importance of good design
13.3 Viewing conditions for standing spectators
13.4 Gangways in standing areas – general requirements
13.5 Lateral gangways in standing areas
13.6 Radial gangways in standing areas
13.7 Crush barriers
13.8 Design of terrace steps
13.9 Dimensions of terrace steps
13.10 Viewing standards
13.11 Sightlines
13.12 Restricted viewing
13.13 Management strategies towards restricted viewing
13.14 Provision of cover
13.15 Division of standing accommodation
13.16 Allowing free movement of spectators between divisions
13.17 Segregation of standing accommodation
13.18 Viewing slopes
13.19 Level standing accommodation
13.20 Combined standing and circulation areas
13.21 Spectator galleries
13.22 Standing accommodation and disabled spectators
13.23 Assessment of (P) factors for standing areas
13.24 Assessment of (S) factors for standing areas
13.25 Conversion of terraces to seating
Diagram 13.1 Conversion of terracing to seated accommodation
14: Spectator accommodation – temporary demountable structures
14.1 Responsibility for safety
14.2 Need to meet standards
14.3 Independent design check
14.4 Design performance and suitability
14.5 Consultation
14.6 Management of temporary demountable structures
14.7 Telescopic stands
14.8 Other temporary demountable structures
15.1 Fire safety legislation
15.2 Achieving safety from fire
15.3 Fire risk assessment
15.4 Levels of risk
15.5 Categorisation of low fire risk
15.6 Categorisation of normal fire risk
15.7 Categorisation of higher fire risk
15.8 New or refurbished stands or structural alterations
15.9 Recording, monitoring and reviewing the fire risk assessment
15.10 Minimising fire risk
15.11 Restriction of fire growth and spread
15.12 Fire resistance in existing constructions
15.13 Fire warning and fire detection systems
15.14 Automatic fire extinguishing systems
15.15 Fire fighting facilities and equipment
15.16 Emergency evacuation and places of safety
15.17 Emergency evacuation of spectators with disabilities
15.18 Staff awareness and training
15.19 Other fire safety considerations
16: Communications
16.1 Management responsibility
16.2 Lines of communication
16.3 Means of communication
16.4 Provision of a control point
16.5 Functions of a control point
16.6 Location of control points
16.7 Command of control points
16.8 Design of control points
16.9 Secondary control point
16.10 Equipment of control points
16.11 Radio communications
16.15 Public address system – operation
16.16 Closed circuit television – provision
16.17 CCTV – assessment of need
16.18 CCTV – risk assessment
16.19 CCTV – operational requirement and tendering
16.20 CCTV – operation
16.21 Monitoring the number of spectators entering the ground
16.22 Fire warning systems
16.23 Scoreboards and other display boards
16.24 Electronic securing systems
16.25 Auxiliary power
16.26 Displayed communications within the control point
16.27 Documentation to be stored in the control point
16.28 Signs – forms and categories
16.29 Signs – general provision and maintenance
16.30 Tickets and programmes
16.31 Inter-personal communications
17: Electrical and mechanical services
17.1 Introduction
17.3 Inspections and tests
17.4 Event-day staffing
17.5 Anti-vandalism
17.6 Electrical installations
17.7 Circuit diagrams
17.8 Protection of cables
17.9 Lightning protection
17.10 Lighting
17.11 Provision of auxiliary power
17.12 Auxiliary power equipment
17.13 Emergency lighting
17.14 Passenger lifts and escalators
17.15 Gas fired installations
17.16 Boilers and other heating devices
17.17 Oil storage and supply
17.18 Ventilation, air conditioning and smoke control systems
18: Medical and first aid provision for spectators
18.1 Management responsibility and consultation
18.2 Medical and first aid risk assessment
18.3 Medical plan
18.4 First aid room
18.5 Medical and first aid equipment and storage
18.6 Upkeep and inspection of the first aid room
18.7 Provision of competent medical services
18.8 Crowd doctor
Table 18.1 Ambulance provision according to anticipated attendance
18.9 Ambulance provision
18.10 Numbers of first aiders
18.11 Role of first aiders
18.12 Communication
18.13 Major incident plan
18.14 Inspections and records
19: Media provision
19.1 Management responsibility
19.2 Pre-event planning and briefing
19.3 Pre-event inspections
20.7 Firework displays
20.8 Designing for alternative uses
20.9 Ancillary activities
Annex A: Assessment of capacity – worked examples
Annex B: Glossary
Annex C: Bibliography and further references
Annex D: Summary of new guidance
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Published by: Snowy Wright on Apr 05, 2012
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