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Nanotec and Crop Improvement

Nanotec and Crop Improvement

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Published by: kumariruchita399 on Dec 11, 2008
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06/27/2012

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Nanotechnology and itsapplications in cropimprovement
 
Nanotechnology and its applications in crop improvement
Abstract
 N
anotechnology is the Design, Fabrication and Utilization of materials, devicesand systems through control of matter on the nanometer length scale and exploitation of novel phenomena and properties (physical, chemical, biological) at that length scale. Itisnow more properly labeled as "molecular nanotechnology" (MNT) or "nano-scaleengineering”.By taking advantage of quantum-level properties, nanotechnology allowsfor unprecedented control of the material world, at the nanoscale, providing the means bywhich systems and materials can be built with exact specifications and characteristics,allowing materials to be lighter, stronger, smarter, cheaper, cleaner and more precise. Nanotechnology has the potential to advance agricultural productivity through geneticimprovement of plants, delivery of genes and drug molecules to specific sites at cellular levels, and nano-array based gene-technologies for gene expressions in plants andanimals under stress conditions. The potential is increasing with suitable techniques andsensors being identified for precision agriculture, natural resource management, earlydetection of pathogens and contaminants in food products, smart delivery systems for agrochemicals like fertilizers and pesticides, smart systems integration for food processing, packaging and other areas like monitoring agricultural and food systemsecurity. Further developments in nanotechnology in this sector can be expected to become the main economic driving forces in the long run and benefit consumers, producers, farmers, ecosystems, and the general society at large.In India, the importance of research and development in nanotechnology has beenrecognized as of paramount importance. If Indian agriculture is to attain its broad nationalgoal of sustainable agricultural growth of over 4%, it is important that thenanotechnology research is extended to the agricultural total production-consumptionsystem, that is, across the entire agricultural value chain. Nanotechnology will give rise to a host of novel social, ethical, philosophical andlegal issues. It is important to have a regulatory mechanism in place to predict and work to alleviate anticipated problems.
INTRODUCTION
Imagine a supercomputer a billion times more powerful than today’s and yet sosmall it would be barely visible by a light microscope. Fleets of medical robots smaller than a cell roaming our bodies eliminating bacteria, clearing out clogged arteries,reversing the ravages of old ages and effectively making us immortal. Clean factoriesmanufacturing without having to worry about pollution choking up the environment.Cheap and abundant solar energy replacing conventional fossil fuels like oil, coal andgas. Building materials that are stronger, lighter and cheaper than the ones used in today’s
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rockets, making lunar vacations no more expansive than says a trip to South Pole. Aworld where material abundance for all the people becomes a reality.Sounds too good to be true? Not for the new breed of scientists who believe thatthe 21
st
century could see all these science fiction dreams come true thanks tonanotechnology, a hybrid of chemistry and engineering that has opened up a whole newworld of possibilities which If taken to their logical conclusion would completely changeus and the world as we know it today. Indeed, so exciting are the prospects of thisrevolutionary science that countries all over the world are investing in the research anddevelopment of nanotechnology. Clearly nanotechnology is slowly but surely capturingthe attention of the scientific community, the media and no the public. But just whatexactly is nanotechnology and why everyone talking about it?
WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY?
 Nanos: Greek term for dwarf, Technology: visualize, characterize, produce andmanipulate matter of the size of 1 – 100 nm. Nanotechnology is manufacturing at the molecular level- building things from Nano-scale components. Nanotechnology proposes the construction of novel Nano-scaledevices possessing extraordinary properties. Through the developments of suchinstruments and technique it is becoming possible to study and manipulate individualatoms.At present, conventional manufacturing techniques manipulate billions of atomsat a time using large scale deformation methods like pounding and chipping. In thefuture,
 
Molecular nanotechnology” will allow very complete control over the placementof individual atoms.Nanotechnology is often referred to as “bottom up” manufacturing because itaims to start with the smallest possible building materials, atoms using them to create adesired product.
 
Working with individual atoms allow “atom –by –atom “design of structures. Nanotechnology can eliminate
 
unwanted byproducts. Nanotechnology wouldallow us to get essentially every atom in the right place, make almost any structureconsistent with the most of law of physics and chemistry that we can specify in atomicdetail and have manufacturing costs not greatly exceeding the cost of the required rawmaterials and energy.Related and interwoven fields include, but are not limited to: Nanomaterials, Nanomedicine, Nanobiotechnology, Nanolithography, Nanoelectronics, Nanomagnetics, Nanorobots, Biodevices [biomolecular machinery], AI, MEMS [MicroElectroMechanicalSystems], NEMS [Nano Electro Mechanical Systems], Biomimetic Materials, Microencapsulation, and many others.
DEFINITION
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