generations will be able to apprize them properly. Nonetheless, there is not enough space here tofollow this discussion, which is a significant subject, but at the same time another question arises:what is the target, the mentioned “particular group of receivers”, of those mediums? I will answerthat question, by using an example from Japan. Miyuki I. Sundara in her article
is an all men's society. They do not trust women. The only visible woman in thegroup is the boss' wife, called
means "older sister." All members give her thesame respect as the boss because she is his wife. However, she does not get involved in thebusiness. Her position in the group is the boss' wife, and not a member of a group.The
do not trust women because they believe that women are weak. They believethat women cannot fight like men, that women are not born to fight. To a
member, themost important thing is courage. If there is a battle, you must be ready to fight to the death, rather than lose the battle.
members must be willing to die for their boss.
The author has taken her knowledge from an interview with a former
member, butthe image created by these words is quite clear and universal throughout the whole criminalunderworld (with some exceptions, but – again – it is a matter for a different paper). In general, itis a place dominated by men, and the main target of most of the art creations are men, young andold, from various backgrounds and environments. With that information kept in mind it should bemuch easier to understand the forms preferred by artists.Finally the issue of
. The easiest and the most universal definition of thatglobal phenomenon was prepared by United Nations:
"Organized crime" is understood to be the large-scale and complex criminal activity carried on by groups of persons, however loosely or tightly organized, for the enrichment of those participating and at the expense of the community and its members. It is frequently accomplished through ruthless disregard of any law, including offences against the person, and frequently inconnexion with political corruption. (United Nations 1975, 8)The term “organized crime” usually refers to large-scale and complex criminal activities carried out by tightly or loosely organized associations and aimed at the establishment, supply and exploitation of illegal marketsat the expense of society. Such operations are generally carried out with a ruthless disregard of thelaw, and often involve offences against the person, including threats, intimidation and physical violence. (United Nations 1990, 5)
Having that covered, without going into further details, I am going to make shortpresentations of three mafias, which I have chosen for this paper – Italian style
hinese triads, and Japanese
is the closest one – with history, image and geography – to whatWestern world relate with organized crime. Structures of it's predecessor, Sicilian mafia, are usedas a model for defining similar structures in different countries. Its beginnings can be traced backto the Middle Ages and criminals roaming through lands of the biggest Italian island, butorganization itself emerged from more or less chaotic criminal “initiatives” in the 19thcentury.Those movements emigrated across the Atlantic together with Italians, looking for a better futurein the New World. Unfortunately, mechanisms and traditions migrated together with people. Therestarted to appear organizations offering protection, also against similar enterprises developedamong other minorities (Jews and Irishmen need to be named). Those groups finally transformedinto more commonly known mafias, for which heyday started together with American prohibition.The ban of alcohol allowed them to become a popular heros among common people. Thoseorganizations were, and still are, a great inspiration for writers, and other artists, but also for other