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Network+BookNotes

Network+BookNotes

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Published by Chris Fryer

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Chris Fryer on Apr 06, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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04/06/2012

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Chapter 1
VLANs allow you to create may
broadcast domains
” (segments)
on a single switch.A Bus network is also called a trunk or backbone. Computers connect to a drop cable. They are tough totroubleshoot.In a star topology all devices connect to a central device which creates a
single point of failure
. But it isthe most popular.In a ring topology the loop must be broken if a fault occurs or the network needs to be expanded.*You are unlikely to see a mesh layout in a LAN setting. But it is the most fault tolerant.*An ESS (extended service set) is two or more Basic Service Sets combined to form a sub-network.A wireless mesh is cheaper that a wired mesh.Test:*2. You can assign computers to a VLAN by protocol, ports, and MAC addresses (w/ a switch)*6. You need a VPN server, client, and protocol to establish a VPN connection.9. An Infrastructure topology is where each client accesses the network through a wireless access point.17. A mainframe is an example of a centralized computing model (distributed is server client)
Chapter 2
Chromatic dispersion is the weakening of light strength in a fiber optic cable.Plenum cables are coated with a nonflammable material.Due to shielding STP distances are greater than UTP.Half-duplex can transmit or receive but not both at the same time.With fiber optic cable, single mode is faster and longer than multimode.
 
*Two types of cable can connect devices to hubs and switches: crossover and straight through.*The Cisco rollover cable is used to connect a computer system to a router, switch, or firewall port.*The loopback cable uses UTP cable and RJ-45 connectors.The main or vertical cross connect is the location where outside cables enter the building fordistribution. The horizontal cross connect is the location where the vertical and horizontal connectionsmeet.*The patch panel provides a connection point between network equipment (hubs, switches) and theports to which PCs connect.The 110 block improves on the 66 block by supporting higher frequencies and less cross talk.The main wiring closet is known as the Main Distribution Frame (MDF).If a modem fails it is replaced by the ISP (demarcation point).Test:*1. DB-25 (pins or holes) and DE-9 are associated with the RS-232 standard (modem, keyboard)2. The 568 standards specify the pin arrangements for the RJ-45 connectors on UTP cable.3. An F-Type connector connects a (coaxial) cable internet modem (screws on)4. Category 6 UTP is 10Gbps w/ 250 MHz bandwidth.5. Category 5 UTP cable uses RJ-45 connectors.*7. Cat6 UTP and fiber optic support 1000 Mps*10. Multimode can travel 412 meters (single mode 10,000)*14. 66 punchblock has 50 rows of IDC contacts (insulation displacement connector).15. F-type connectors are not associated with fiber optic, but SC, ST, and LC are.17. Horizontal cable is from the wiring closet to the telecommunications port for the client system.
Chapter 3
*Collisions do not occur on
switches
so CSMA/CD is not needed.*Micro-segmentation is the process of direct communication between sender and receiver that switchesperform to decrease collisions.
 
*For full-duplex connection you need a switch, the right cable, and a NIC (and driver).Trunking is the use of multiple network cables or ports in parallel to increase the link speed beyond thelimits of any one cable or port.*The majority of ports on a hub/switch are normally MDI-X (crossed MDI) ports, and hosts (PCs, routers)usually come equipped with MDI ports. If 
both
are MDI then crossover cable is needed. If one is MDIand the other MDI-X (Medium Dependent Interface Crossover) a straight-through cable is needed.Hubs and switches usually have 8, 16, 24, or 32 ports (all multiples of 8).The 80/20 rule states that 80% of traffic should not cross a bridge (it should be local).STP-
Spanning Tree Protocol
is layer 2 along with bridges and switches. STA is the algorithm used bySTP. STP ensures that no redundant links or paths are found in the spanning tree. STP is defined in the802.1 d standard.*Transparent bridges are the most popular (they only block or forward data based on MAC). Theysegregate Ethernet networks.Translational bridges connect two different networks like Ethernet or token-ring
they “translate”
.*Routers use the software-configured network address. Hubs and switches use the hardware-configuredMac address.*A system network architecture (SNA) sits between the client PC and mainframe and translates requestsand replies from both directions.AT modem commands: ATA
 –
answers, ATH
 –
hangs up, ATZ
 –
resets, ATI3 - displays ID info.Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter chips: 8250
 –
9,600 bps / 16450 & 16550
 –
115,200 /16650
 –
430,800 / 16750 & 16950
 –
921,600*The PCMCIA (
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
) card is both a modem & NIC.Media converters allow us to use the existing infrastructure while keeping pace w/ changingtechnologies.*A DHCP assigns IP addresses. Some companies run more than one DHCP server.*A multilayer switch operates as both a router and a switch.*A content
switch
(no relation to Internet content) is sometimes called a load-balancing switch. It candistribute data to specific application servers.*Load balancing increases redundancy and therefore availability to data. It can be a hardware orsoftware device.

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