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Application of IR (Infra-Red) Spectroscopy

Application of IR (Infra-Red) Spectroscopy

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Published by Radowan Ahmad

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Published by: Radowan Ahmad on Apr 06, 2012
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10/13/2012

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Applications of IR Spectroscopy 1
Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the spectroscopy which deals with the infraredregion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It covers a range of techniques, mostly based onabsorption spectroscopy. As with all spectroscopic techniques, it can be used to identify andstudy chemicals.The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is usually divided into three regions andnamed for their relation to the visible spectrum;1.
 
Near infrared: The higher-energy near-IR, approximately 14000
 – 
4000 cm
−1
(0.8
 – 
2.5
μm wavelength) can excite
overtone or harmonic vibrations.2.
 
Mid infrared: The mid-infrared, approximately 4000
 – 
400 cm
−1
(2.5
 – 
25
μm) may be
used to study the fundamental vibrations and associated rotational-vibrationalstructure.3.
 
Far infrared: The far-infrared, approximately 400
 – 
10 cm
1
(25
 – 
1000
μm), lying
adjacent to the microwave region, has low energy and may be used for rotationalspectroscopy.Infrared spectroscopy exploits the fact that molecules absorb specific frequencies that arecharacteristic of their structure. These absorptions are resonant frequencies, that is, thefrequency of the absorbed radiation matches the frequency of the bond or group that vibrates.It is also known as requirement of frequency matching. The energies are determined by theshape of the molecular potential energy surfaces, the masses of the atoms, and the associatedvibronic coupling.Moreover, in order for a vibrational mode in a molecule to be "IR active," it must beassociated with changes in the dipole. A permanent dipole is not necessary, as the rulerequires only a change in dipole moment. A molecule can vibrate in six ways, and each wayis called a vibrational mode. The ways are-1.
 
Symmetric stretching2.
 
Asymmetric stretching3.
 
Scissoring,4.
 
Rocking,5.
 
Wagging6.
 
Twisting
 
Applications of IR Spectroscopy 2
An IR spectrum shows the energy absorptions as one 'scans' the IR region of the EMspectrum. As an example, the IR spectrum of butanal is shown below.In general terms it is convenient to split an IR spectrum into two approximate regions:
 
4000-1000 cm
-1
known as the functional group region, and
 
< 1000 cm
-1
known as the fingerprint region
Figure
 
01
: An infrared spectrumFrom this spectrum we can understand that:
 
Most of the information that is used to interpret an IR spectrum is obtained from thefunctional group region.
 
In practice, it is the polar covalent bonds than are IR "active" and whose excitationcan be observed in an IR spectrum.
 
In organic molecules these polar covalent bonds represent the functional groups.
 
Hence, the most useful information obtained from an IR spectrum is what functionalgroups are present within the molecule.
 
In the fingerprint region, the spectra tend to be more complex and much harder toassign.
 
Remember that some functional groups can be "viewed" as combinations of differentbond types. For example, an ester, CO
2
R contains both C=O and C-O bonds and bothare typically seen in an IR spectrum of an ester.
 
Applications of IR Spectroscopy 3
Infrared spectroscopy is widely used in industry as well as in research. It is a simple andreliable technique for measurement, quality control and dynamic measurement. It is alsoemployed in forensic analysis in civil and criminal analysis.
Figure 02
: A schematic diagram of a dispersive infrared spectroscopy
Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy:
Some of the major applications of IR spectroscopy are as follows:1. Identification of functional group and structure elucidationEntire IR region is divided into group frequency region and fingerprint region. Range of group frequency is 4000-1500 cm
-1
while that of finger print region is 1500-400 cm
-1
.
Figure 03
: Group frequency and fingerprint regions of mid infrared spectrum

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