Applications of IR Spectroscopy 1
Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the spectroscopy which deals with the infraredregion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It covers a range of techniques, mostly based onabsorption spectroscopy. As with all spectroscopic techniques, it can be used to identify andstudy chemicals.The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is usually divided into three regions andnamed for their relation to the visible spectrum;1.
Near infrared: The higher-energy near-IR, approximately 14000
μm wavelength) can excite
overtone or harmonic vibrations.2.
Mid infrared: The mid-infrared, approximately 4000
μm) may be
used to study the fundamental vibrations and associated rotational-vibrationalstructure.3.
Far infrared: The far-infrared, approximately 400
adjacent to the microwave region, has low energy and may be used for rotationalspectroscopy.Infrared spectroscopy exploits the fact that molecules absorb specific frequencies that arecharacteristic of their structure. These absorptions are resonant frequencies, that is, thefrequency of the absorbed radiation matches the frequency of the bond or group that vibrates.It is also known as requirement of frequency matching. The energies are determined by theshape of the molecular potential energy surfaces, the masses of the atoms, and the associatedvibronic coupling.Moreover, in order for a vibrational mode in a molecule to be "IR active," it must beassociated with changes in the dipole. A permanent dipole is not necessary, as the rulerequires only a change in dipole moment. A molecule can vibrate in six ways, and each wayis called a vibrational mode. The ways are-1.