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Is there a Successful ID Model? A Practitioner's Perspective on Working with Models in Designing e-LearningEnvironments
Is there a Successful ID Model? APractitioner's Perspective on Working withModels in Designing e-LearningEnvironments
Madhuri Dubey
Cordys R&D India Ltd 
Ms. Madhuri Dubey, PhD, is associated withCordys R&D India Ltd, Hyderabad as a SeniorInstructional Designer. She has been involved invarious activities related to e-Learning such aslearning strategy and content development,project management and evangelizing e Learningand Instructional Design. She can be reached atmadhurid@rediffmail.com
 
This presentation is intended at sharing myexperiences in learning design with thelarger elearning community that is activelyinvolved in exploring and using newtechnologies for educational purposes. Itseeks to put forward the premise thatsuccessful elearning environments arecreated using eclectic instructional designprinciples. Hence, there cannot be a singleuniversal model that could be followed fordesigning and developing all types ofinstruction. This calls for a study of variousmodels so that we can evolve a set ofprinciples that can guide in designingeffective elearning.
Introduction
Instructional Design is a disciplinedapproach towards achieving learner-centricgoals by making learning more effective andempowering. Design interventions bridge thegap between technology and humanexperience. Systematic efforts at design notonly simplify the content, it makes it easyand engaging to learn, thereby enhancingthe learning experience. An instructionaldesigner designs
learnscapes 
by formulatingand implementing appropriate learningstrategies.
Making design decisions
 
I would like to begin with three exemplaryscenarios that depict different contexts inwhich we make design decisions. All thesecases illustrate typical traits of anorganizational elearning initiative such asdynamic nature of product, constant changeof Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) andlimited number of dedicated resources forthese projects.
ELELTECH INDIA 2005
 
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Is there a Successful ID Model? A Practitioner's Perspective on Working with Models in Designing e-LearningEnvironments
Scenario 1:
In this case there was a requirement toconvert a variety of ILT (Instructor LedTraining) material into elearning. This taskincluded repurposing of several types oftraining materials that were used across theorganization. A great deal of time was spenton structuring, sequencing and prioritisingour activities to meet the needs of learnersspread across various locations. Theoutcome was in the form of successfuldeployment of several elearning coursesdealing with concepts, processes andtechnologies relevant to the organizations.
Scenario 2:
Here, the challenge was two-fold. A decisionwas taken in the organization to build arepository of Learning Objects, and at thesame time, evolve a process where theobjects could be updated as and when thereare changes in the product functions andfeatures.We had to build learning objects that couldform a repository of learning resources.These were neatly chunked bytes oflearning intended to impart topic-wiselearning. Being standalone, they could alsobe reused in different courses for differentlearner profiles. There were certainlimitations that made us look forworkarounds as we did not have a full-fledged LCMS and limited set of authoringtools. It was like having a common pool oflearning resources. We can find similarexamples in corporate training and formaleducation setting where teachers andtrainers themselves build these objectsusing basic authoring tools or a fullyfunctional LCMS.
 
Scenario 3:
We are currently exploring tools andtechnologies that can help us in evolving theright blend using different media elements.These could be learning events where partof the course could be delivered in face-to-face mode or we can use virtual learningenvironment. The learners can acquire thepre-requisite knowledge on their own usingself-study material. Moreover, as our contentis bound to change frequently, we need toupdate it immediately. As there is very littletime between development and delivery weare exploring rapid development tools. Thelearner profiles who would be gaining fromthis approach include sales and marketingpersonnel, consultants and industry opinionleaders and other stakeholders likecustomers, partners and resellers.Now, looking back I wonder; did we reallyfollow any model to accomplish theseprojects? Perhaps not direct application oftheory to practice, but for the most part wewere guided by the past experience of theteam members in handling similar projects.
ELELTECH INDIA 2005
 
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Is there a Successful ID Model? A Practitioner's Perspective on Working with Models in Designing e-LearningEnvironments
The same could be true of teachers whoembark on design activities for repurposingtheir classroom materials, textbooks andother presentation to develop effectiveelearning modules for their institutions. Theyeither learn design theory or rely on theirexperience and learning from similarprojects. A case in point could be theManagement and Engineering Onlinecourses developed by the University faculty.I generally base all my design decisions onthree important variables: the context, thecontent and the learners. This helps me inputting together all the pieces of the puzzleand viewing the whole picture. It also givesme scope to study the dependenciesbetween these variables and strive for abalance in the form of sound instructionalstrategies that can optimise
learnability 
ofthe content. Though, eventually, I mayrealize that I was subconsciously following amodel or a framework as a point ofreference. It helped me in planning,scheduling and organizing my activities,evolve a process and eventually validate thedeliverables against the benchmarks.
Instructional Design Models
One of the most popular models inInstructional Design is the ADDIE model.This is an acronym for
Analyse, Design,Develop, Implement and Evaluate.
This isan iterative instructional design process,where the results of formative evaluation ofeach phase may lead you back to theprevious phase. The outcome of one phaseis the starting point (input) for the nextphase. This model is quite similar to thesoftware development models and otherprogram design models.
Analysis,
the first phase of this model seeksto answer the ‘What’ aspects of learning. Iprefer to use the term ‘pre-design’ todescribe this phase. During this phase wedefine the problem, identify the learningissues and knowledge gaps that indicate keyareas for learner improvement. We identifythe causes, work out probable solution; thisis more like a research phase and it involvesstages like needs analysis, task analysis,context analysis and so on. It is quite similarto the requirements gathering phase ofprogram development where we are tryingto understand the big picture of where theprogram fits in, what problems it can solve.The output of Analysis phase helps us indeveloping a strategy for learning. The
Design
phase seeks answers to various‘How’ aspects of the course .Theinstructional strategy thus evolved, providesa detailed outline of how learning goals canbe determined and accomplished effectively.Typically this phase involves detaileddocumentation of learner, content andcontext. A listing of objectives and selectingof delivery systems also forms a part of thisstage. The process would be incomplete ifwe mention the structuring, chunking andsequencing activities carried out with thehelp of SMEs.A more significant element at this stage isthe strategy formulation for effective deliveryof content. Here, we explore several optionsto enhance the instructional value of thecontent by creating prototypes and proof ofconcepts to showcase the execution of thestrategy.Next we move to the Development or theProduction phase. In fact this is a verycrucial stage that can affect the entireproject schedule. It involves the actualproduction of modules, lessons,assessment, audio components,simulations, and all other assets thatconstitute the course material. It alsoincludes post-production activities such asreviews and editorial tasks. This is the stagewhere team dynamics are operationalized.To a great extent, successful execution oflearning strategy depends on implementingsmart and lean ways of production.Storyboarding, production of visualelements, content review and testing andfeedback incorporation are some of thecrucial activities carried out at this stage.
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i m preparing for cet-2012 june,17 for DAC course.please sent me some cet sample papers on my email id krati.1209@gmail.com...plssss so that i can prepare well
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i m giving cet -2011 in 20 november,2010 for DAC course..plz send me some cet paper on my email id: ashimeg@gmail.com thanks.
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