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456 Bio Sensors

456 Bio Sensors

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Published by rameshchowdarapally

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Published by: rameshchowdarapally on Apr 06, 2012
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04/06/2012

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Index:Contents:
1.
 
Introduction - 22.
 
Origin of Biosensors - 43.
 
Need Of Biosensors - 54.
 
Principles of Biosensors - 64.1
 
Photometric - 64.2
 
Electrochemical - 74.3
 
Ion Channel Switch - 84.4
 
Others - 85.
 
Components of Biosensors - 96.
 
Growth Of Biosensors - 157.
 
Applications of Biosensors - 207.1
 
Healthcare - 207.2
 
Industrial Process Control - 227.3
 
Military Applications - 247.4
 
Environmental Monitoring - 258.
 
Future Prospectus & Conclusion - 269.
 
References - 27
 
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1.INTRODUCTION:
A biosensor is an analytical device comprising two elements in spatial proximity:
Abiological recognition element
able to interact specifically with a target
A transducer
able toconvert the recognition event into a measurable signal.A
biosensor
is composed of two elements: a biological recognition unit able to interactspecifically with a target, and a transducer able to convert a change in property of the solution orsurface, due to complex formation, into a recordable signal.In contrast with conventional bioassays, biosensors allow the detection of molecularinteractions as they take place, without requiring auxiliary procedures, making them highlyattractive for biotechnological applications.
Immunosensors
are biosensors in which the recognition element is composed of antibodies. Antibodies are powerful recognition tools because of their affinity and specificity of recognition for the target (antigens), and because of their diversity, potentially allowing themonitoring of any compound.The development of biological sensors, or biosensors, is a rapidly growing field andBeckman Institute researchers are in the forefront of these developments. Scientists in areas asdiverse as chemistry, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering are working to createbiosensors that have medical, research, and industrial applications. These researchers employtechnologies as cutting edge as stretchable electronics and as simple as dipstick tests, usingmaterials as exotic as silk and as 21st Century as gold nanoparticles. They are creatingbiosensors that could one day be used to monitor the heart of a patient with arrhythmia, detecttoxins such as lead in the home or laboratory, or be used in futuristic brain-machine interfaces.There are several research lines at Beckman developing intriguing new biosensingtechnologies, often using completely different approaches. One researcher, John Rogers, isapplying his groundbreaking work with flexible and stretchable electronics to the world of biomedicine while another, Yi Lu, is harnessing the power of DNA biomolecules for detection of toxins.
 
 
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1.1 What Is a Biosensor?
 
Biosensor = bioreceptor + transducer.
A biosensor consists of two components: a bioreceptor and a trans-ducer. The bioreceptoris a biomolecule that recognizes the target analyte whereas the transducer converts therecognition event into a measurable signal. The uniqueness of a biosensor is that the twocomponents are integrated into one single sensor (Fig. 1.1). This combination enables one tomeasure the target analyte without using reagents. For example, the glucose concentration in ablood sample can be measured directly by a biosensor (which is made specifically for glucosemeasurement) by simply dipping the sensor in the sample. This is in contrast to the conventionalassay in which many steps are used and each step may require a reagent to treat the sample. Thesimplicity and the speed of measurement is the main advantages of a biosensor.
Enzyme is a Bioreceptor.
When we eat food such as a hamburger and French fries, they are broken down into smallmolecules in our body via many reaction steps (these breakdown reactions are called
catabolism
). These small molecules are then used to make building blocks of our body such asproteins (these synthesis reactions are called
anabolism
). Each of these catabolism andanabolism reactions (the combination is called
metabolism
) are catalyzed by a specific enzyme.Therefore,
an enzyme is capable of recognizing a specific target molecule
(Fig. 1.2). Thisbiorecognition capability of the enzyme is used in biosensors. Other biorecognizing molecules (=bioreceptors) include antibodies, nucleic acids, and receptors.
Immobilization of Bioreceptor.
One major requirement for a biosensor is that the bioreceptor molecule has to beimmobilized in the vicinity of the transducer. The immobilization is done either by physicalentrapment or chemical attachment. Note that only minute quantities of bioreceptor moleculesare needed, and they are used repeatedly for measurements.
Transducer.
A transducer should be capable of converting the biorecognition event into a measurablesignal (Fig. 1.3). Typically, this is done by measuring the change that occur in the bioreceptorreaction. For example, the enzyme glucose oxidase (used as a bioreceptor in a glucose biosensor)catalyzes the following reaction:Glucose + O2 --------> Glucosnic acid + H2O2

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