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Crim Outline

Crim Outline

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Published by Olga Kogan

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Published by: Olga Kogan on Apr 06, 2012
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Criminal Justice
David Cole
Spring 2011 - GULC
Table of Contents:
BIRTH OF CONSTITUTIONAL CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: INCORPORATION AND DUE PROCESS ..... 2
 
REGULATING POLICE PRACTICES ................................................................................................................. 4
 
THE EXCLUSIONARY RULE ............................................................................................................................. 4
 
TRIGGERING THE FOURTH AMENDMENT: PROTECTED AREAS AND INTERESTS ............................ 8
 
PROBABLE CAUSE, PARTICULARITY, AND EXECUTION ....................................................................... 12
 
Probable Cause.................................................................................................................................................. 12
 
Search Warrants ................................................................................................................................................ 12
 
WARRANTLESS ARRESTS AND SEARCHES OF PERSONS AND PREMISES ......................................... 15
 
WARRANTESS SEIZURE AND SEARCH OF VEHICLES AND EFFECTS .................................................. 17
 
EQUAL PROTECTION AND CRIMINAL LAW ENFORCEMENT ................................................................ 20
 
REASONABLE SUSPICION AND STOP AND FRISK .................................................................................... 21
 
ADMINISTRATIVE OR REGULATORY SEARCHES .................................................................................... 24
 
ENTRAPMENT .................................................................................................................................................... 26
 
RIGHT TO APPOINTED COUNSEL
 – 
6
TH
AMENDMENT ............................................................................. 27
 
INTERROGATIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 29
 
TORTURE AND COERCIVE INTERROGATIONS ......................................................................................... 33
 
LINE-UPS AND SHOWUPS ............................................................................................................................... 34
 
PRIVILEGE AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION AND IMMUNITY ............................................................. 35
 
 
INTRODUCTION: BIRTH OF CONSTITUTIONAL CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: INCORPORATION AND DUE PROCESS
Course Themes:
Constitutional Theory-
 
Black 
total incorporation. Literal/Textual approach-
 
Frankfurter
Fundamental Fairness
Dynamic Doctrine-
 
Selective Incorporation - Unsubstantiated Compromise (American System).Tradeoffs-
 
Liberty v. Security
individual privacy rights v. effective criminal law enforcement -
 
Empowering police v. protecting citizens
 -
 
Fundamental rights v. Rights of Fed Govt Equality-
 
Criminal
 
Justice system has no legitimacy unless applied equally across the board.
 
-
 
Selective incorporation movement was in response to the civil rights movement and the view that states will not protect individual rights.Institutional Role
 
-
 
Individualized justice v. regulation of police
 
o
 
Fundamental fairness: Backstop for individual justice
 
o
 
Selective Incorporation: Each right as a whole
the result applies same set of rules to allpolicing actors.
 
-
 
Perverse Result of the Exclusionary Rule: The constable blunders and the criminal goes free.
JusticeCardozo
 
Rules v. Standards-
 
Rules
o
 
Examples
 
Aguilar-Spinelli - Credibility + Basis of Knowledge -
 
Public arrest w/o a warrant 
only need a warrant when invaliding privacy interest.
 
Knock and announce
protects dignity, not privacy. Proper warrant execution.
o
 
Benefits: Less costly, easier to administer, better guide for the police
o
 
Problem: Either overbroad or under inclusive or both.-
 
Standards
o
 
Examples:
 
Gates: Totality of the circumstances.
 
Overrules A/S
 
Richards
Exception to knock and announce
 
No exclusionary rule b/c protects dignity, not property.
o
 
Benefits: Reasonableness tests allow for a balancing of public and private interests. See Terry.
o
 
Problems: Difficult to administer, no clear lines for police and judges.
 
Note: This is why Police prefer Miranda
 
it’s a clear rule even though it might hinder
their investigation.
 
History
 
3 periods in Constitutional Criminal Procedure
 
1789-1950 (Palko/Adamson/Wolf)
 
o
 
Crim. Procedure = 4
th
& 5
th
Ams as they apply to federal law enforcement 
o
 
90-95% of criminal enforcement is done by states
o
 
Bill of Rights written to restrict federal govt 
 
1950s-1960s (Warren & Burger Court)
 
o
 
Constitutional Crim. Procedure is born
o
 
Virtually all Bill of Rts applies to the states
o
 
Sup Ct decisions bind every court and law enforcement officials
o
 
Civil Rights movement/ abusive state authorities
 
1980s-Present 
o
 
Burger expands some rights and contracts others
o
 
Rehnquist contracts rights of criminal defendants
 
 
 
Incorporation
 
 
14
th
 
Amend: “no state may deprive any person of life, liberty, or property w/o due process of law”
 
o
 
Applicability to the States
 
Fundamental Fairness (FF) Approach
: Only those constitutional rights that are implicit inthe concept of ordered liberty apply to the states by the 14
th
Amendment. QUERY: Can we
imagine “
any” 
fair system of justice without the right? Did the particular defendant get afair process? Very high bar for applicability of rights to states
 
Palko v. Connecticut 
: guarantee against double jeopardy (5
th
) does not apply to thestates. (Overruled 32 years later by Benton).
 
 Adamson v. California
: right against self-incrimination (5
th
) does not apply to thestates bc the right is not a privilege of national citizenship or implicit in the concept of ordered liberty (Overruled by Malloy)
 
Total Incorporation (TI) Approach (Justice Black)
: The purpose and intent of the 14
th
 amendment is to extend the first 8 Amends to the states
never a majority for this view.This approach is divided as to whether general fundamental rights that are required by thegeneral 5
th
amendment due process clause also apply to state.
 
Selective Incorporation (Rule Today)
: Is the
 American
system of justice fair without thisright? Any right that is necessary to FF applies to
the states. We don’t look to the casespecifics. It’s a rule approach that applies uniformly to all states, which provides clarity.
 
Duncan v. Louisiana
: right to a trial by jury in criminal cases (6
th
)
 
Mapp v. Ohio
: right to be free from unreasonable search and seizure and to haveany illegally seized evidence excluded from criminal trials (4
th
)
 
Gideon v. Wainright 
: right to counsel (6
th
)
 
Benton v. Maryland
: guarantee against double jeopardy (6
th
)

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