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SHKLOV, POWELL (2001) a Non-Linear Analytical Approach to Single Cells

SHKLOV, POWELL (2001) a Non-Linear Analytical Approach to Single Cells

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Published by D B Karron, PhD

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Published by: D B Karron, PhD on Apr 07, 2012
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10/20/2013

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A
N o n - l i n e a r
A n a l y t i c a l
A p p r o a c h
t o
S i n g l e
C e l l s
I n
C u m u l a t i v e F r e q u e n c y
T a b l e s
b y -
N o r m
S h k l o v , P h .
D .
D e p a r t m e n t
o f
M a t h e m a t i c s
a n d
S t a t i s t i c s
U n i v e r s i t y
o f
W i n d s o r
W i n d s o r ,
O n t a r i o ,
C a n a d a
( R e t i r e d )
a n d
J a yC . P o w e l l ,
P h . D .
F a c u l t y
o f
E d u c a t i o n
U n i v e r s i t y
o f
W i n d s o r
( R e t i r e d )C o n f i d e n t i a l
d o c u m e n t
b e i n g p r e p a r e d
f o r
p u b l i c a t i o n .
R u n n i n g
H e a d :
N o n l i n e a r
a n a l y s i s
o f
f r e q u e n c y
d a t a
J a n u a r y
2 0 0 1
 
A B S T R A C T
H a v i n g
e s t a b l i s h e d
c l e a r
e v i d e n c e
f o r
a
f o r m
o f
l e a r n i n g
t h a t
i s
t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l
a n d
n o n - l i n e a r
( P o w e l l
&
S h k l o v ,
1 9 9 2 ) , t h e
a u t h o r s
h e r e w i t h
p r e s e n t a n o n - l i n e a r
w a y
t o
c o n s i d e r
s i n g l e
c e l l
f r e q u e n c y
d a t a
i n
s o c i a l - s c i e n c e
s e t t i n g s .
T h i s
p a p e r
d e s c r i b e st h e
p r o c e d u r e
i n d e t a i l
a n d
g i v e s
s e v e r a li n s t a n c e s
o f
i t s
a p p l i c a t i o n
i n
d i v e r s e
s e t t i n g s .
 
T h e
P r o b l e m
T h e s e
t w o
r e s e a r c h e r s
h a v e ,
f o r
s o m e
t i m e ,
b e e n
i n v e s t i g a t i n g
n o n - l i n e a r
a p p r o a c h e s
t o
o b s e r v a t i o n a l
d a t a .
T h e
i n i t i a l
p r o b l e m
a r o s e
b e c a u s e
t h e y
w e r e
t r y i n g
t o
f i n d
s o m e
w a y
t o
e x a m i n e ,
i n
m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e
t e s t s ,
t h e p a t t e r n s
i n
w h i c h
s t u d e n t s '
a n s w e r s
( w h e t h e r
r i g h t
o r
w r o n g )
c h a n g e
w i t h
l e a r n i n g .
A s
b a c k g r o u n d
t o t h i s
p r o b l e m
t h e r e
a r e
t w o
p o s s i b i l i t i e s .
T h e
f i r s t
p o s s i b i l i t y
i s
t h a t
a l l
w r o n g
a n s w e r s
a r e
b l i n d
g u e s s e s
a n d
t h a t
s t u d e n t s
w i l l
c h a n g e f r o m
a n y
w r o n g
a n s w e r
t o
t h e
r i g h t
o n e
w i t h
a p p r o p r i a t e
i n s t r u c t i o n .
I n
t h i s
c a s e
t h e
c u r r e n t
p r a c t i c e
o f
c o n s i d e r i n g
o n l y
r i g h t
a n s w e r s
w h e n
o b s e r v i n g
s t u d e n t
b e h a v i o r
c h a n g e s
f o r
q u a l i t y c o n t r o l
w o u l d
b e
e n t i r e l y
a p p r o p r i a t e .
T h e r e
w o u l d
b e
n o
m e a n i n g f u l
i n f o r m a t i o n
t o
b e
f o u n d
a m o n g
t h e
w r o n g
a n s w e r s .
T h e
s e c o n d
p o s s i b i l i t y ,
w h i c h
c o m e s
f r o m
P o w e l l ' s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e
a n d
f r o m
P i a g e t ' s
m a n y
y e a r s
o f
c l i n i c a l
o b s e r v a t i o n
( s e e :
F l a v e l l ,
1 9 6 3 ) ,
i s
t h a t
a n s w e r s c h a n g e
i n
s o m e
s o r t
o f
s e q u e n t i a l
o r d e r
t h a t
i s
d e p e n d e n t
u p o n
h o w
s t u d e n t s
i n t e r p r e t
t h e
t e s t
q u e s t i o n s .
T h e i r
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , i n t u r n ,
c o u l d b e
d e p e n d e n t
u p o n
t h e i r
c u r r e n t
s t y l e
o f
t h i n k i n g
a n d
t h e i r
c u r r e n t
d e p t h
o f
i n t e l l e c t u a l
m a t u r i t y .
I n
t h i s
c a s e ,
l e a r n i n g
w o u l d
d i s p l a y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l p r o p e r t i e s ( s y s t e m a t i c
a n s w e r
c h a n g e s )
i n
a d d i t i o n
t o
c u m u l a t i v e
p r o p e r t i e s ( i n c r e a s i n g
n u m b e r s
o f
c o r r e c t
a n s w e r s ) .
T h e r e
c o u l d
b e
c o n s i d e r a b l e
m e a n i n g f u l
i n f o r m a t i o n
i na l l
a n s w e r s ,
n o t
m e r e l y
t h e
r i g h t
o n e s .
T o
l o o k
a t
c h a n g e ,
i t
i s
n e c e s s a r y
t o
g i v e
t h e
s a m e
t e s t
m o r e
t h a n
o n c e .
W h e n
t h i s
i s
d o n e ,
i t
b e c o m e s
p o s s i b l e
t o
c o m p a r e
t h e
a n s w e r s
s e l e c t e d
u p o n
t h e
f i r s t
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
t o
t h o s e
s e l e c t e d
o n
t h e
s e c o n d
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
a n d
b u i l d
f r e q u e n c y
t a b l e s
t h a t
s u m m a r i z e
t h e s e
s e l e c t i o n s .
I n
s o m e
c a s e s ,t h e
s t u d e n t s
m a y
s e l e c t
t h e
s a m e
a n s w e ro n
b o t h
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ,o r
t h e y
m a y
c h a n g e
f r o m
o n e
a n s w e r
t o
a n o t h e r w i t h i n
e a c h
i t e m .
3

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