Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Diesel Engine Lecture Notes word

Diesel Engine Lecture Notes word

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,208|Likes:
Published by M J Rhoades
how a nuclear emergency diesel works
how a nuclear emergency diesel works

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: M J Rhoades on Apr 07, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/13/2013

pdf

text

original

 
1
Unit 2
 
Mechanical Science ; diesel engines
 
NUPT 113: diesel engines and the emergency diesel generator system
Objectives:
Basic components knowledge and power plant fundamentals: are industry required standards for BSCstudents in the NUPT program. The learning requirements of two directly related requirements havebeen combined in this course and are indicated below by acronyms.Desired outcome for Basic Component Knowledge (BCK): describe basic theory, construction,application, and operation of basic plant components.Desired outcome for power plant fundamentals (PPF): explain the principles and/or describe items aslisted below.Enabling statements:* Describe and / or explain the theory, construction, principles, and application of diesel engines,including the following:* Accessories/support systems (BCK & PPF)* Failure mechanisms and symptoms (such as failure to start, failure to reach operatingspeed, failure to stop, rough idling) (BCK & PPF)* Main structural components (such as frame, block, pedestal, fuel distribution system)(BCK & PPF)* Main moving components (BCK & PPF)* Principles of operations (BCK & PPF)* Switch gear distribution, protective relays, engineered safeguard systems.separation / cable routing* Control circuits, relays, (time delay energize & de-energize to actuate), starting,protective, Indications, alarms, and monitored parameters.*Meters such as (such as voltage and current and how a change in meter indicationcould indicate circuit degradation of a change in process)EDG technical specifications
NOTE: whenever there are contradictions between the lecture notes and the text book; go by thelecture notes for testing purposes and for understanding industry standards.
Diesel engines:
this unit will cover information on diesel engines and will concentrate on the nuclear plantSafety related Emergency Diesel Generators (EDG). After the Fukushima nuclear accidents
Note: 
The content of this course is the property of Bismarck State College and is protected by copyright law. Bismarck State College gives visitors and students permission to copy documents from this course for study purposes only. Distribution or retrieval for commercial use is strictly prohibited without prior written permission from Bismarck State College. © Bismarck StateCollege
 
 
2the need to understand the importance of these systems cannot be overstated. It is importantthat NUPT students understand the objectives of this unit.
General information and principles of diesel operation:
 
A
diesel engine
(also known as a
compression-ignition engine
) is aninternal combustionenginethat uses theheat of compressionto initiateignition.(to burn thefuel).
 
The diesel engine was developed byRudolf Dieselin 1893.
 
The diesel engine has the highestthermal efficiencyof any regularinternalorexternal combustionengine due to its very highcompression ratio.Low-speed Diesel engines (as used in ships and other applications where overall engine weight is relatively unimportant) often have athermal efficiency which exceeds 50 percent.
 
Diesel engines are manufactured intwo strokeandfour strokeversions. They were originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationarysteam engines.Since the 1910s they have been usedinsubmarinesand ships, locomotives, emergency generators, large trucks, and power stations.
 
The
compression ratio
is a measure of how much the engine compresses the gasses in theengine's cylinder. In a gasoline engine the compression ratio (which controls thecompression temperature) is limited by the air-fuel mixture entering the cylinders. The lowerignition temperature of gasoline will cause it to ignite (burn) at a compression ratio of less than10:1. The average car has a 7:1 compression ratio. In a diesel engine, compression ratiosranging from 14:1 to as high as 24:1 are commonly used. The higher compression ratios arepossible because only air is compressed, and then the fuel is injected. This is one of the factorsthat allow the diesel engine to be so efficient.
 
Unlike a gasoline engine, a diesel engine does not require an ignition system because in a dieselengine; the fuel is injected into the cylinder as the piston comes to the top of its compressionstroke. When fuel is injected, it vaporizes and ignites due to the heat created by thecompression of the air in the cylinder.
Working principles of the diesel engine: 4 stroke; (like those used at nuclear plants).
 
Induction
: air is drawn into the cylinder.
 
Compression: the air is compressed to high temperature and pressure.
 
Power Stroke: around cylinder Top Dead Center (TDC) (piston is at top of travel in the cylinder withvalves closed) fuel is injected, which self-ignites and burns, further increasing pressure and therebyforcing the piston down.
 
Exhaust:
the hot gas is released to the exhaust system.
 
On the next page is an illustration showing the process.
 
3
 
Every nuclear power plant has at least 2 diesel generators that provide emergency electrical power inthe event that all offsite electrical power is lost. The diesel generators have turbochargers that supplycombustion air. To assure that they start, emergency air storage tanks supply high pressure air tostart the diesel. As with most rotating mechanical equipment, water cooling systems and oillubrication systems are used. The diesel generators are typically tested 1-2 times per month whenthey are run for about 1-4 hours. Several times per year the diesels may be run for up to 24 hours toensure that the equipment would function during a loss of offsite power.
Emergency Diesel generator components, accessories, and support systems:
 
The EDG system consists of the following basic components, systems, criteria, technicalspecifications and special requirements. Note: System designs vary from plant to plant. Theinformation provided in this section is for general knowledge about diesel generators.
 
Pedestal
 
Frame
 
Block and internal components
 
Starting system
 
Fuel distribution system
 
Lube oil system
 
Cooling water systems
 
Turbo charger / air induction system.
 
Generator.
 
Seismic restraints and structure.
 
Containing room / Building.
 
Switch gear distribution, protective relays, engineered safeguard systems. Train separation / cable routing.

Activity (4)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
isukuru liked this
mkhalil410 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->