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Textile Research Paper 2 by Mansoor IqbalCROSSLINKING

Textile Research Paper 2 by Mansoor IqbalCROSSLINKING

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J.Chem.Soc.Pak.,Vol.31,No.1,2009145
EffectofCrosslinkinginTextilePigmentPrintingandEnhancementofFastnessProperties
MUHAMMADWARIS,MANSOORIQBAL
*,
AUSAFALEEMANDFARAZALI.
AppliedChemistryResearchCentre(TextileSection),PCSIRLaboratoriesComplex,OffUniversityRoad,Karachi-75280,Pakistan.
(ReceivedII
th
October2007,acceptedinrevisedform20
th
September2008)
Summary:
Pigmentprintingwascarriedoutonlabscalebysimplescreen-printingtechniques.Bytheapplicationofacrylatebasedbinderandmelaminebasedfixativethecrocking,perspirationanddry-cleaningfastnesspropertiesofRed,NavyandBlackprintswereevaluated.Ithasbeenfoundthat,astheconcentrationratiobetweenpigmentappliedandfixativeincreases,thefastnesspropertiesalsoincreaseandreachtoanoptimumvalueofI:2.5;beyondthisvaluethefastnesspropertiesdecreaseandresultantprintbecomestiffThefastnesspropertiesofRedprintwerefoundtobebetterascomparedtoNavyandBlackprints.
IntroductionPigmentprintmeritsaseparatetreatmentbecauseofitsextensiveuseandtechnicallydifferentcharacteristicsfromprintingdyes.Abouthalfofthe
20
Billionmetersofclothwhichareprintedannuallyworldwidearepigmentprintedthoughtherearesignificantvariationsindifferentcountries
[1].
Inpigmentprinting,insolublepigments,whichhavenoaffinityforthefiberarefixedontothefiberwithbindingagentsinthepatternrequired.Agoodqualitypigmentprintischaracterizedbybrillianceandhighcolorvaluerelativetothepigmentconcentrationinthepaste,minimumstiffeninginthehandleoftextileandgenerallyacceptablefastnessproperties.Successfulpigmentprintingsystemsarebaseduponthreeequallyimportantcomponents:Pigmentdispersions,bindersandcrosslinkingagents,thickenerandauxiliaryagentsgivingtherequiredrheology
[2].
Thebinderfilminpigmentprintisa3-dimensionalstructure,thethirddimensionisratherlessimportantthantheothertwo.Thebinderisafilm-formingsubstancemadeupoflongchainmacromolecules,whichwhenappliedtothetextiletogetherwiththepigmentproducea3-dimensionallylinkednetworkThelinksareformedduringsomesuitablefixingprocesswhichusuallyconsistsofdryheatandchangeinpHvalue,bringingabouteitherself-crosslinkingorreactionwithothersuitablecrosslinkingagents.Theimportantcriteriawhichensurethatthepigmentwithinthecrosslinkedbinderfilmisfasttoexternalagencieslikewater,chemicalsandrubbing,areelasticity,cohesionandadhesiontothesubstrate
[3].
Thebindersusedarealladditionpolymers,preferablycopolymerssuchasfollowingstructure;
'VVV-CH-CH-CH--C~
2
I
2
I
o
COo--CH
(Styrene-butylAcrylatecopolymer)Dependinguponthepropertiesrequiredinthebindingfilm(softness,elasticity,plasticity,solventstability),binderscanbetailor-madebychoosingsuitablebaseproduct.
It
isnecessarytoco-polymerizedifferentmonomers.Typically,unsatu-ratedmonomersareusedsuchasvinylchloride,
dichloroethene,
acrylicacid,acrylonitrile,acrylicacidestersandethers.Nowadays,acrylatebased
co-
polymeraremostwidelyused
[4J.
Elasticityandimprovedadhesionofthefilmtothesubstrateisachievedbycrosslinking.Thecrosslinkingreactionmustproducecovalentbondswhichareinsensitivetohydrolysingagents(washingliquor,perspiration,industrialatmosphere).The
reactionshouldbeactivatedindryhotair.St@amcan
haveadverseeffectoncross-linkingandconsequentlyonthefastnessoftheprint[5).IfBistheprincipalpartofthebinderthecrosslinkingofN-methylolamidegrouptakesplaceundermildconditionsandinacidmedium:
B-CHzOCHz-B
+
HOH
orBCHrOB+HOH
Towhomallcorrespondenceshouldbeaddressed.
 
146J.Chem.Soc.Pak.,Vol.31,No.1,2009
Crosslinkingincreasesthecrocking,washinganddrycleaningfastnessproperties,butdetrimentallyaffectsthehandleofthefabric.Whenthebindermoleculehavenoself-crosslinkinggroups,anaddi-tionalcrosslinkingagentsuchasureaformaldehydeormelamineformaldehydecondensate,methylolatedurethanecompoundsetc,havingatleasttworeactivegroupspermoleculeareaddedinthebindersystem(6).Fixativesareusedinthesmallerquantitiesevenwhenthebindercontainstheself-crosslinkinggroups.Typicallythepigmentprintingpasteformulationincludes;water,pigments,binder,whitesprit,syntheticthickeningagent,waterretainingagent,crosslinkingagent,adhesionpromoters,catalyst,handlemodified,antifoamingagent,plasticisersandammonia.Allthesecomponentsarenotalwaysrequired,theiravailabilitiesdependontheconditionsunderwhichprintingisbeingcarriedout[7).Thepresentresearchworkdemonstratesthecrosslinkingeffectofacrylatebasedbinder,whichisself-cross-linkedcopolymerandmelaminebasedfixative.Theirinfluenceonthecrocking,perspirationanddry-cleaningfastnesspropertieshasalsobeeninvestigated.ResultsandDiscussionThreedifferentpigmentprintsRed,BlackThecross-linkingeffectofacrylatebasedbinderandmelaminebasedfixativewereinvestigated.Theenhancementsinthecrocking,perspirationanddry-cleaningfastnesspropertiesoffinalprintcausedbyabovecrosslinkingagentswerealsostudied.Fastnesspropertieslargelyaffectedbytakingaconstantconcentrationofbinder90glkg(w/w)andbyvaryingtheconcentrationoffixativefrom
1
%
to
3
%.
ArelationshipbetweenvaryingconcentrationoffixativeandfastnesspropertiesshowninFigs.1-3.FromtheresultsgiveninTables1-3atinitialstagebyusingaconstantconcentrationofbinder(Printofix77N),whichisaself-crosslinkingagent,havingacopolymersystem,atthisstagethefastnessachievedisduetothecrosslinkingofcopolymerTable-I:ColorfastnesstoCrocking(AATCC-08).
ConcentrationRedNavyBlackoffixativeD~
Wet
Da:
Wet
Da:
WetWithontfixative3-4221-221-21.0%3-42-32-3
2
21-21.5%42-3322-32
2.0%
4-53
3-42-33
2
2.5%4-53-4433-42-33.0%43-43-4332-3
MANSOORIQBAL
etaL,
ColourFastnesstoCrocking(Red)
5
4.54
gp
3.5....--_.--
'e
3
~2.5
II
2
.E
1.5
0.5
O~--~------~~=---~-----r---=~
0.0%1.0%1.5%2.0%2.5%3.0%
Fig.
lea):
Concentration
/-+-Ory
Wet
I
ColourfastnesstoCrocking
(AATCC-08).
ColourfastnesstoCrocking
(Navy)
5
4.54
""
~3,~
~2.5
S
2
£
1.51
0.5
o+----~------~----~----_,___--~
0.0%1.0%1.5%2.0%2.5%3.0%
Concentration
Fig.
1(b):
I-+-
Dry---
Wet
I
ColourfastnesstoCrocking
(AA
TCC-08).
ColourFastnesstoCrocking(Black)
en
4.:
1
.i
3.5
:::3
~2.5
E
2...
--~r-
£
1.5__--__
r-
1
0.5
O+-----~----_r----~----__----__
0.0%1.0%1.5%2.0%2.5%3.0%
Concentration
i-+-Dry
Wet
I
Fig.I(c):ColourfastnesstoCrocking
(AATCC-08).
 
MANSOORIQBALetal.,
moleculewitheachotherorwiththehydroxyl(-OH)groupofcellulosicsubstrate.Thecrosslinkingensurestheoptimumfastnesspropertiesatthisstage[8].Thereactionbetweenthebindersandthecellulosicsubstratemayberepresentedasfollows:Binder-CH2-OR
+
HO-Cellulose
1~
Binder-CH2-
0-
Cellulose
+
ROHwhereRisCH
3
orHByincreasingtheamountoffixative(PrintofixfixativeWB),thefastnesspropertiesremarkablyincreasedasshowninFigs.1-3andTables1-3.Additionalimprovementinfastnesspropertiesismainlyduetothereactionoffixativewithbinder,thisactuallyreducedthewatersolubilityofprintthickenerpastewhichultimatelyresultsintheimprovedfastnessproperties.Thereactionmayberepresentedasthefollowing:
HexamethoxymethylMelamine
J.Chem.Soc.Pak.,Vol.31,No.1,2009
147
Table-2:ColorfastnesstoDry-cleaning(lSO-105-DOl).
ConcentrationShadechangeShadechangeShadechangeoffixativeRedNav~BlackWithout
2-31-21-2
fixative
1.0%2-32-321.5%3332.0%3-43-43-42.5%4443.0%3-43-43-4
Table-3(a):ColourfastnesstoPerspiration(ISO-105-
E04)
(Acidic).
ConcentrationChangeStainingonMultifiberColourofFixativeinShadeCOCAPAPESPACWORedWithoutfixative
33-433-42-333
1.0
°/0
3-43-43-4333-43-41.5%443-43-433-442.0%4-54443-444-5
2.5
%
4-54-54444-54-53.0%
4
43-43-43-444
NavyWithoutfixative
2-323232-321.0%32-332-33331.5%332-32-33-4342.0%3-433-4343-442.5%4443-44-544-53.0%43-43-43-4
4
34
BlackWithoutfixative
322-322-33-42-3
1.0
%
332-32-32-33-431.5%3-433-4333-432.0%43-4443-4442.5%4-54-S4-54-544-S4-S3.0%44-5443-444
+
IIO-~-{
CarboxylatedPolymerReducedwatersolubilityincreasedmechanicalstability

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