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The OSI Model

The OSI Model



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Published by: sangeetaratan19894026 on Dec 12, 2008
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The OSI reference model is an arbitrary hierarchical stratification(layering) of computer networking functions. The stratification consistsof seven layers.There are various ways of implementing the protocols at any givenlayer. OSI is a CONCEPTUAL model.Protocols are prescriptive methods which delineate the communicationthat is to take place at a given layer.Several other well known and widely used reference models have NOTbeen recognized as standards, e.g., IBM’s SNA (also a layeredapproach), and the DoD developed protocols (which include TCP/IP –Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, SMTP – Simple MailTransfer Protocol, FTP – File Transfer Protocol) are often used in UNIXand other environments.The OSI Reference ModelThe OSI reference model consists of seven layers, not including layer 8,the end user’s application, and layer 0 the physical transmission media8. O/S or User Application7. Application Layer6. Presentation Layer5. Session Layer4. Transport Layer3. Network Layer2. Data Link Layer1. Physical LayerPhysical Transmission MediaThe OSI Reference ModelLAYER 7 – The APPLICATION LayerThe top layer of the OSI model
Provides a set of interfaces for sending and receiving applicationsto gain access to and use network services, such as: networked filetransfer, message handling and database query processingLAYER 6 – The PRESENTATION LayerManages data-format information for networked communications(the network’s translator)For outgoing messages, it converts data into a generic format fornetwork transmission; for incoming messages, it converts data from thegeneric network format to a format that the receiving application canunderstandThis layer is also responsible for certain protocol conversions,data encryption/decryption, or data compression/decompressionA special software facility called a “
” operates at thislayer to determine if a request is network related on not and forwardnetwork-related requests to an appropriate network resourceLAYER 5 – The SESSION LayerEnables two networked resources to hold ongoingcommunications (called a session) across a network Applications on either end of the session are able to ex hangedata for the duration of the sessionThis layer is:Responsible for initiating, maintaining and terminating sessionsResponsible for security and access control to session information(via session participant identification)Responsible for synchronization services, and for checkpointservicesLAYER 4 – The TRANSPORT LayerManages the transmission of data across a network Manages the flow of data between parties by segmenting longdata streams into smaller data chunks (based on allowed “packet” sizefor a given transmission medium)Reassembles chunks into their original sequence at the receivingendProvides acknowledgements of successful transmissions andrequests resends for packets which arrive with errors
LAYER 3 – The NETWORK LayerHandles addressing messages for delivery, as well as translatinglogical network addresses and names into their physical counterpartsResponsible for deciding how to route transmissions betweencomputersThis layer also handles the decisions needed to get data from onepoint to the next point along a network pathThis layer also handles packet switching and network congestioncontrolLAYER 2 – The DATA LINK LayerHandles special data frames (packets) between the Network layerand the Physical layerAt the receiving end, this layer packages raw data from thephysical layer into data frames for delivery to the Network layerAt the sending end this layer handles conversion of data into rawformats that can be handled by the Physical LayerLAYER 1 – The PHYSICAL LayerConverts bits into electronic signals for outgoing messagesConverts electronic signals into bits for incoming messagesThis layer manages the interface between the the computer andthe network medium (coax, twisted pair, etc.)This layer tells the driver software for the MAU (media attachmentunit, ex. network interface cards (NICs, modems, etc.)) what needs tobe sent across the mediumThe bottom layer of the OSI modelThe OSI Reference ModelSENDING COMPUTER RECIVING COMPUTERUser Application UserApplication
7 Application
7 Application6 Presentation6 Presentation5 Session5 Session4 Transport4 Transport

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