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Requirements Definition and Equipment Nomenclature

Requirements Definition and Equipment Nomenclature

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Published by: Faiz Ahadan Rijalis Siraj on Apr 08, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Chapter 9
Requirements definition andequipment nomenclature
9.1 Overview
The provision of a C&I system for a power station is a complex matterwhich requires careful and comprehensive administration. The task isdemanding: the design of the equipment must be correct, systems must bedesigned on time, equipment has to be carefully specified and purchased,and everything has to be delivered to site, installed and commissioned to atight programme which interweaves the C&I system with the many otheractivities that will inevitably be taking place on site at the same time.When complete the system should be fully supported by comprehensivedocumentation which enables maintenance staff and users to deal with it.The actual process of designing the C&I systems forms only one partof the many activities that go together in the task of engineering acomplete contract. Although some of the other operations may seemmundane and trivial, they are really anything but that. They are asessential to the contract as the technical design work.
9.2 Defining the requirements
The outcome of a major engineering project such as the design, installationand commissioning of the C&I systems of a power station will to a largeextent depend on specifying the requirements at the outset so that what isprovided fits within the budget and is fit for the intended purpose. Equallyexact documentation is required at each stage as the system metamor-phosises from the original concept to the final, functional form.
Power-plantcontrol and instrumentation
This procedure requires a considerable amount of definition, and thefollowing outline lists the documents that might be required over thelifetime of a typical project, listed in the order in which they may beexpected to be generated. This does not pretend to be an absolute defini-tion that must be rigorously followed on every installation. It is a practicalsystem that has produced good results when tollowed on several projects.Other documentation systems offered by a system vendor may be perfectlyacceptable, provided that the same degree of definition is achieved at eachstage.
9.2.1 The functional specification
A system can be defined in several different ways, but an essential require-ment is the definition of what the system should do
in relation to theprocess
it is monitoring and/or controlling. This requirement is met by theFunctional Specification (FS). This is a process-related definition of thefunctions that the system will be required to perform. It does not providedetailed descriptions of the system hardware and software, such asresponse times, power supplies, environment etc., except where these arecritical to meeting the functional objectives of the installation. Because itdefines the requirements, the FS should be one of the documents againstwhich the vendor is invited to submit a commercial bid for a project.A typical FS will describe the plant as a whole, and then discuss thecontrol loops with the required accuracy, response times and dynamicrange of each loop.
9.2.2 The technical specification
Having said
the system should do, it is then appropriate to define, insome detail,
the functions should be achieved. This purpose is servedby a Technical Specification (TS) which describes the system configurationin terms of the electronics and computer technologies to be employed.Because it defines the technology and facilities required, this documentshould be requested from the vendor when he submits a proposal forexecuting a project.The TS should include the tbllowing definitions:the size, type and number of operator displays to be provided;the overall configuration (heirarchical, distributed etc.);method of programming (block-structured, Boolean, ladder-logic etc.);the physical environment in which the equipment will be expected tooperate (defined in terms of temperature, humidity, vibration, shocketc. as well as dust levels to be encountered, hazardous-area require-ments etc.);
Requirements definitionand equipment nomenclature
185the performance required (speed, response time, availability, memoryetc.);power supplies available (including voltage and frequency excursions);safety requirements (backup, redundancy, fault tolerance etc.).The TS will also lay down the requirements for testing, such as:• Factory-acceptance: where the system is set up in the supplier'spremises, connected to a simulator, or to switches and signal sources forinputs and to meters and lamps (or LEDs) to show outputs, and thenput through a series of routines to show that it performs as required.
Site-acceptance tests: performed after the system has been installedand commissioned on site, when it is subjected to changes in desired-value settings, simulated equipment trips and so on, to prove that itreacts correctly and in good time to such events.Reliability run: where the equipment is left in full control of theprocess, to demonstrate that is is capable of operating correctly for adefined period, with no malfunctions. The document should state theduration of the reliability run, the conditions under which this test willbe expected to operate and what should happen if a failure occurs (e.g.start again and repeat the test).Any commercial requirements relating to guarantees, performancebonds etc., should be defined separately, although these will interrelatewith the TS and should therefore be referred to.Note that the various acceptance test procedures will at this stage bedefined only in very general terms. A full definition is provided by test spe-cifications (as described later). Making provision for site tests
It is usual to retain a sum (typically 5% of the overall contract value)which is paid only when the vendor has proved that the system is capableof performing satisfactorily. However, it should be recognised that acontrol-system supplier can demonstrate that his equipment and systemsare capable of functioning as required only if the plant is made available tohim for testing the system's performance on the operating plant. It isunreasonable to retain what may in fact be a substantial sum of moneywithout giving the supplier a reasonable opportunity to prove that hisequipment is as accurate, fast-responding and reliable as required. Yet, it isquite common for the plant owner to procrastinate over performing suchtests. The reason for this is that a power plant represents a major invest-ment, and starting the recovery of that investment must naturallycommence as quickly as possible. As soon as the plant has been completed

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