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Traverse Survey

# Traverse Survey

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07/02/2013

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Traverse

Survey

INTRODUCTION
Traversing is a form of a control survey that requires the establishment of a seriesof stations that are linked together by angles and distances. The angles aremeasured by theodolites, and the distances are measured conventionally by tapesor electronic distance measuring equipment. The use of theodolite in traversingsurveys is very fundamental and has become one of the most common methods ingeomatic engineering work such as:

general purpose angle measurement;

provision of control surveys;

contour and detail mapping; and

setting out and construction work.This topic will describe the construction and use of the theodolite in traversing. Itwill explain the traverse design and the procedures of computing and adjusting a
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44

5.

Determine the nature of errors affecting the traverse work.4.

Compute coordinates for traversing; and
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:1.

Outline the basic components of a theodolite;2.

Carry out temporary adjustments of a theodolite;3.

Compute and adjust a theodolite traverse;

TOPIC 4 TRAVERSE SURVEY

51
traverse. The application of coordinates for point location will also be covered inthis topic which will be very useful in civil engineering project.
THEODOLITE PRINCIPLES ANDAPPLICATIONS4.1
A theodolite is an instrument which is capable of measuring angles to the nearestwhole second [Figure 4.1]. This can be done for both vertical and horizontalangles. Vertical angles are required for the calculation of elevation of points for example the reduction of slope distance to the horizontal.
Figure 4.1
: Atheodolite
Source
: SouthGeosystems
Horizontal angles are required to obtain the relative direction to a survey controlstation or points of detail.Basically there are two types of modern theodolite which are in use today. Theseare the:(i)
Optical theodolite
; and

(ii)
Electronic Digital theodolite
.Both types of instrument can be made to read to the nearest whole 1” which isconsidered accurate enough for most engineering purposes. With the advancementof modern electronics, most of the theodolites made today are of the electronicdigital type. But the older optical types are still being used except that it will takelonger time to read the angles than with an electronic one. The value of the angleobserved however will be the same. Electronic theodolites are more versatile than

TOPIC 4 TRAVERSE SURVEY
52
the optical type. Useful features in the form of software can be added to anelectronic theodolite. Thus modern instruments can be used in a variety of surveying situations.
EXERCISE 4.1
What is the major difference between the optical and the electronictheodolite? Differentiate between each type in terms of its construction.
4.1.1 Construction of a Theodolite
All theodolites have the same common features [Figure 4.2] which can bedescribed as follows:1.
A Tribrach
Allows the instrument to be connected to the top of a tripod and also allowsthe instrument to be levelled with respect to a plate bubble.2.
The Horizontal Circle Compartment
This compartment is comprised of:(i) The lower plate that carries the horizontal circle. In most instruments itis made of glass with the graduations from 0ºto 360ºphotographicallyetched around the edge.(ii) The upper plate that carries the horizontal circle indexing device andfits concentric with the lower plate. Attached to the upper plate is the plate bubble. When centered, the plate bubble ensures that theinstrument axis is vertical. In modern electronic theodolites, the spirit bubble has been replaced with an electronic one. This electronic meansof levelling has made initial levelling of the instrument a less timeconsuming task.3.
The Vertical Circle Compartment
The vertical circle is similar to the horizontal circle but is fixed to thetelescope. Thus it revolves with the rotation of the telescope. Thiscompartment has the vertical circle index. Most modern theodolites employan automatic compensator but some of the more elderly instruments use analtitude bubble.