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Solar Pond Sukhatme-1

Solar Pond Sukhatme-1

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Published by: Amar Kumar on Apr 09, 2012
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12/10/2012

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230SolarEnergy
~----m'()adToload
Auxiliaryhealer3kW
To
colleclors
'-----Make-up
walerline
Fig.1.10
Assume
(I)
Theauxiliah
t.
fallsbelow450C(~'»)
i;
eaerswitchesonwhenthetemperatureinthetank
..u
ake-up
waterat24°Centersatthesameratea
th
rateofwIthdrawaltotheload.
(iii)
(UA)
=60kJ'h-
o
CseCalculatetheho
I"
t
I
valueof49
SoC
t~~60~a[jaAtlonof
.T.,
from0300to0800hstartingwiththe.a.twhattunedoestheauxiliaryheaterswitchon?2.
t:
a~elJ-mili:edliquidstoragetank,
it
isgiventhat
(i)
theusefulheatgainec.aneapproximatedbyahalf-sinewave
q
=
A
sin
("'fll)
h
A'
t
areconstants(")
U
1'1
were
1
nd
1,'IIIjIOBd
=
aconstant,
(iii)
theambienttemperature
T..
constant,and
(iv)
at
t
0
th
to:
d
J'..
a
IS
tht
th.",
=,
esoreiquidISatatemperature
T
Showaetemperaturevariationinthetankisgivenby
It·
(T,_T)
=
71'C.
tl[C1
'I
1<'[
trt
-c
]
a
(rrl+
c'")-_
sin--cos--
+11'
,1
j
'1r
t,
t
I
+[
Tli-T"
+~]
e-c,'_~
C1
C1
where
c
1
=
(UA)I;
C2
=
Al.
c-
qload
(p
VC2».
(p
V
C),
a-(
V
C)
3W'
PC
P
»
re
.rrte
downthesetofequat'ons.'which'd".Iappropnateforastratifiedwaterstoragetank
U.
IS
assumetoconsistofthreewell-mixedsections.4.sethedataofExample72.hhconsistsofthr1.'.WIt.t.eassumptionthatthehotwatertankand
TIS
=
MeCe:t
~i~~
:~~-;~~et~~ectiolns.Take
Tit
=
70°C,Til
=
67.SoC
6.SlEI.
elf
vauesat1300hovexarnple7.3bytakingtheairflowratetobe0.22·kg/s.
CHAPTER8
SolarPond
8.1INTRODUCTION
Inordertoreducethecostoflargesolarthermalinstallations,itisneces-sarytodevisemoreeconomicalwaysofcollectingandstoringsolarenergy.Inthiscontext,attentionhasbeenfocussedonthepossibilityofusinglargeexpansesofwaterofsmalldepthforabsorbing
1
andstoringsolarradiationinsteadofusingflat-platecollectorsandhotwaterstoragetanks.However,experienceshowsthatthewaterinsuchapondusuallyheatsuponlyafewdegrees,becauseofthenaturalconvectioncurrentswhicharesetintomotionassoonasheatisabsorbedatthebottom.Onewouldobtainasignificantriseinthewatertemperatureonly
if
thecon-vectioncouldbeprevented.Anartificiallyconstructedpondinwhichsignificanttemperaturerisesarecausedtooccurinthelowerregionsbypreventingconvectioniscalleda"solarpond".Themorespecificterms"salt-gradientsolarpond"
0
r"non-convectingsolarpond"arealsooftenused".Atthemomentsolarpondsaremostlybeingstudiedonanexperimentalbasisinanumberofplaces.However,theyappeartobeeconomicalforlargeareaapplicationsanditislikelythattheywillbeusedextensivelyinthefutureasproblemsconnectedwiththeiropera-tionandmaintenanceareresolved.Theconceptofasolarpondisderivedfromtheobservationthatinsomenaturallyoccurringlakes,asignificanttemperaturerise(oftheor-derof40to50°C)doesoccurinthelowerregions.Thisisbecauseofthefactthatthereisanaturalsaltconcentrationgradientintheselakes,wherebythewateratthebottomremainsdenserevenwhen
it
ishotterthanthewateratthetop.Thus,convectiondoesnotoccurandheatislostfromthehotwateronlybyconduction.Thesaltconcentration
·Thesetermshelptodistinguishsuchapondfromanothertypeofpondcalledthe"sha.llowsolarpond".Intheshallowsolarpond,shallowpoolsofwaterabout5emdeepcontainedinlarge-areamodulesareexposedtoandheatedbythesun.Themodulesarecoveredbyoneortwolayersoftransparentplasticfilm.Typically,thewaterisstoredinanundergroundheatstoragereservoir.
It
flowsfromthereservoirintoeachmodule,getsheated
by
afewdegreesandflowsbackintothe.reservoir.Atsunset,thewaterfromthemodulesisdrainedintothereservoirtopreventheatlossbyradiationtothenightsky.
 
232SolarEnergy
gradientinsuchlakesismaintainednat.
I
~f
saltdepositsatthebottomofthelake~raIY.becauseofthepresencetionconcentrationsinthe
10.'
whIchcauseclosetosatura_streamswhichflowacrossthe~~~.regionsandbecauseoffreshwateiTheWorkingofasolarpondb.
8,1.
Considerapondofdth
L
can
e,explainedwithreferenc.etoFig..ephavingsaltdi1d'Weassumethatth.
S
ISsOve
1D
thewatereconcentratIOnat
th
t
(C)'·.
bottom
(C
2)
andthataconce'.e
°P
1.IS
lessthanthatatthebottomTheva.
ti
f
nt~atlOngradienrexistsfromthetoptothe.rraIon
°
densityith
t
rationsisasshown.Let
T]
and
WI~.
emperatureforthetwoccncenr,toplayerofwaterindicatedbPI.bethetemperatureanddensityoftheanddensityofthebottom
I
y~o~~t
A,
andT
2
a~d
P2
bethetemperaturelocatedfortheintermediat:~;r:~~c~edby
point
B..
SimilarpointsarethevariationofCdensityasynthecurve
AB
IS
drawnshowingobviousthatlnoconvection.onemovesdownwardsinthepond.
It
is
is
positive..
WIll
OCCUrsolongastheslopeofthecurve
ABJ
Top-Conc~ntrotionC,Temperature
T,
Density~,
7777n'77777?77";'7T77T")"_
Bottom-ConcentrotionC2TemperatureT2
Density
92
Temperaturt'
T
Fig.8.1PrinCipleof
W
k'or'n9ofasolarpond
Mathematically,theconditionthhthoseaboveisgivenbyat
t
elowerlayersremaindenserthan
.!J:_
>
0
dx
(8.1)Since
p
=
p(e
T)
it:B
11
,,0
owsthattheconditionforstabilityis
[aa~
JT[~;]
+[:~
1[:~
>
0or~;
>-{(~~
t(;~
1(;~
)T}
Fromaslightlymoreh"sop
rstrcated
analysiswhichconsiderstheeffect(8.2)
SolarPond233
ofsmall
pertur
batious,itcanbeshownthat
;~~-{:~;}{(;~)c(~~
)1(;~
)T}
(8.3)
where
'I
=
kinematicviscosity
cr
=
thermaldiffusivitylind
D
=
diffusivityofsaltinwater.Forsolutionsofsaltinwaterundertheconditionsencounteredinsolar
ponds,
thevalueoftheterm
('I
+
et)!(v+D)
isabout
US.
Thus,the
criter-
ionforstabilitygivenbyEq,(8.3)isalittlemorestringentthanthecrite-riongivenbyEq,(8.2).Equation(8.2)or(8.3)canbeusedforcalcula-tingtheminimumconcentrationgradientrequiredformaintainingagiventemperaturegradientataparticularlevelinasolarpond.ThefirstexperimentalsolarpondswereconstructedinIsraelintheearlysixtiesbyTaborandhisco-workers.Althoughtheprincipleofworkingwasdemonstratedeffectivelyandtemperaturescloseto100°Cwereobtainedatthebottom,manypracticaldifficultieswere
encoun-
tered.Theworkappearstohavebeenabandonedthen.However,inthelastfewyears,therehasbeenarenewedinterestindevelopingsolarponds.ConsiderableworkisagaininprogressinIsrael.theU.S.A,andafewothercountries.Recently,theheat
ou
tputoftwopondsinIsraelhasbeenutilizedforrunningsmall-outputorganicvapourturbinesandob-
tamingelectric
power.
In
India,
a
solarpondwas
in
operationattheCentralSaltandMarineChemicalsResearchInstitute,Bhavnagarin1973andwasusedfortheproductionofsalt.WorkhasalsobeendoneatPondicherrywhereexperimentalstudieshavebeenconductedonapond100m
2
inareaand2mdeep(Plate6).Apartfromtheabovementionedapplicationofproducingmechanicalorelectricalpower,
it
hasbeensuggestedthatsolarpondscouldbeusedveryeffectivelyforsupplyingheatforindustrialprocessesandforspaceheatingwheretemperaturesupto70or75°Cmayberequired.
8.2DESCRIPTION
AschematicdiagramofasolarpondisshowninFig,8.2.Asstatedearlier,
it
combinesthefunctionsofheatcollectionwithlong-termstorageandcanprovidesufficientheatfortheentireyear.Typically,itisabout
I
or
2
metresdeepwithathickdurableplasticlinerlaidatthebottom.Materialsusedforthelinerincludebutyl
rubber,
blackpoly-ethyleneandbypalonreinforcedwithnylonmesh,Saltslikemagnesiumchloride,sodiumchlorideorsodiumnitratearedissolvedinthewater,theconcentrationvaryingfrom20to30perCentatthebottomtoalmostzeroatthetop.
In
ordertoobtainthisconcentrationgradientinitially,thepracticefollowedistofillupthepondwithseverallayersofsaltsolution,oneontopoftheother.Eachlayeris10to20'emthickandhasaconcentrationlowerthanitspredecessor.Lefttoitself,thesalt
 
-------------------.~--------~------~
Ul
"
:r
<II
3
'"
-
(i'
0
0;'
OJ
I)
3
o
-
"
'"
o
;;;-
-
-
=--
II
I
I
1
=,.....
I
I
"0
o
::>
0
n
Depth
-o*V-
...ID
o'"
==a
ID-
'"

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