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Published by suleman205

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Published by: suleman205 on Apr 10, 2012
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hemically Soaps are the alkali salts of higher fatty acid.These fattyacids are generally oleic acid (C
COOH), Stearic acid (C
COOH),palmatic acid (C
COOH), myristic acid (C
COOH).Soaps are preparedby hydrolysis of oil & fats with sodium & potassium hydro oxide. Commontoilet soaps are the sodium soaps manufactured from fatty oils.(Oils & Fats)+ Alkali _______________Soap + Glycerin
Types of Soaps:-
There are two types of soaps.
1Hard Soap2Soft soap
Hard Soap:
The sodium soap is known as hard soap. These arecomparatively less soluble in water and give less leather. Hard soapsare usually used for laundry purposes
Soft Soap
Potassium soaps are generally known as soft soap.These are more soluble in water and give good leather than hard soap.These are used for different purposes like special toilet soap, shavingsoap. It is used in shaving cream as well.
Mechanism of cleansing soaps:-
When used forcleaning, soap serves as a surfactant in conjunction with water. The cleaning actionof this mixture is attributed to the action of micelles, tiny spheres coated on theoutside with polar hydrophilic (water loving) groups, encasing a lipophilic (fatloving) pocket that can surround the grease particles, causing them to disperse inwater. The lipophilic portion is made up of the long hydrocarbon chain from thefatty acid. In other words, whereas normally oil and water do not mix, the additionof soap allows oils to disperse in water and be rinsed away. Synthetic detergentsoperate by similar mechanisms to soap.
Process of Manufacturing of Soap
a.Cold Processb.Full boiled Processc.Warm or Semi boiled Processd.Neutralizing Process
Raw Material for Soap
1Tallow2Animal Greases
3Fatty Acid4Oils5Alkali6 Soap Stock7Builders8Additives
Additives are used to enhance the color, texture, and scent of soap.Fragrances and perfumes are added to the soap mixture to cover the odor of dirt and to leave behind a fresh-smelling scent. Abrasives to enhance thetexture of soap include talc, silica, and marble pumice (volcanic ash). Soapmade without dye is a dull grey or brown color, but modern manufacturerscolor soap to make it more enticing to the consumer.
Aloe Vera Gel
- Add up to 1/2 cup per 5 lb bath of soap.
Castor Oil
- Add at about 1/2 to 1 ounce per pound of oils -- at trace or inbase oils - helps hold scent and gives soap rich lather.
Cocoa butter
-- Usage is personal preference - I use about 1 1/2 ounces perpound of soap. I split that in half and add half to the base oils and half at lighttrace. It adds wonderful moisturizing qualities to the soap, contributes to amuch harder bar, and, if I use the natural with the cocoa scent, it add a slightchocolate scent to my soap.
Emu Oil
-- Added at light trace no greater than 10% of total recipe. Addswonderful moisturizing and healing qualities to the soap. Said to be very goodfor people with dermatitis, psoriasis etc.
-- 1 tsp per pound of oils - Added warmed at light trace - addsfragrance and lather to soap.
-- 1 tsp each per pound of oils. Salt adds hardness to the soap. Add inwith lye water.
Shea Butter
-- added at trace (usually). Add wonderful moisturizing andhealing benefits to the soap. Also contributes to the "texture" -- making a

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