e.g., Cu, Zn. Fe, Pb, Sn etc. areextracted by making use of
roasting andsmelting methods.
4. REFRACTORY MATERIALS.
The substances which are capable ofwithstanding very high temperatures withoutmelting or becoming soft are called
They are thus used inthe form of bricks for the internal lining of
furnaces, fluxes and hotter parts ofchimney
and also for the lining of laddlesand converters.
The refractory materials are generally metals, metal oxides or mixture of metal oxides and sometimes carbides also. Asuitable refractory material : (a) Does not melt or soften to an appreciable extent on exposure to intense heat. (b) Resists sudden variations of temperature. (c) Does not crumble at high temperature and pressure.(d) Can withstand the corrosive action of slags which are rich in iron and other metallic oxides.
Refractory materials are generally ofthree types- Acidic, basic and neutralrefractories.
Acidic refractories are those which react withbases. Examples are silica in the form ofganister (a silicious rock containing 92%SiO
) and 2.7% Al
, silicious sandstonesetc.
are those whichreact with acids. Examples are magnesite(MgCO
), dolomite (MgCO
are those which neither reactwith acids nor with bases. Examples aregraphite, chromite etc.
Some semi neutralrefractories are
also known. For example,fire clay consisting of 50-60% SiO
(alumina) is an example ofsemi neutral refractory material.
is one of the best material for themanufacture of electrodes and
because it neither melts nor softens even atthe highest temperature of the furnace.Metals such as platinum, thorium, tungstenand their oxides are suitable for refractorymaterial. Silicon carbide or carborundum(SiC) is used as refractory for specialpurposes. Silica resists temperatures upto1750
C, bauxite bricks upto 1800
) upto 2000
C and magnesiaand chromite bricks upto 2200
5. Various Type of Furnaces.
In this type offurnace, the charge is placed on thehearth and heated by the flamesdeflected from its concave roof. Airsupply can be controlled by vents anddirect blast.In reverberatory furnace since the fueldoes not come in direct contact with thecharge,
it can be used for reductionas well as oxidation process.
Forreduction the material is mixed with areducing agent like coke and heatedwhile for oxidation it is heated in acurrent of air. The calcination androasting are usually done in areverberatory furnace. It has been usedin case of copper, tin, lead and wroughtiron.(ii)
It has double cup andcone arrangement at the top to preventthe exit of hot gases during the additionof charge. The maximum tempratureattained is 1500
C near the tuyers. Ithas three zones : zone of combustion(bottom), zone of fusion (middle) andzone of reduction (upper).The temperature range decreases fromthe bottom i.e. at the tuyers to the top.In other words the zone of combustion
AISECT TUTORIALS : CHEMISTRY : SET-10