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Ajax 2

Ajax 2

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Published by: webdocs01 on Dec 12, 2008
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06/30/2010

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The pursuit of a development technique like AJAX came from the need for makingweb applications much more usable and eliminating their key disadvantages incomparison with the desktop platform:
Poor Interactivity
– web applications require that users wait for full pagereloads after each interaction with the server. During the loading time theyhave to stare at a blank screen, which tremendously disturbs the wholeexperience. Although broadband internet connections are becoming astandard, web applications are also becoming increasingly complex and"heavy" so the overall waiting time remains relatively the same.
Unresponsiveness
– classic web applications transfer the complete formdata to the server, which in turn renders and sends back the full HTMLmarkup of the page to the browser. This happens during each postback and inmost cases is highly inefficient, since only a small part of the interface isactually changed. However, lots of bandwidth is consumed and theperformance is significantly hindered. This leaves users with the idea that webapplications are slow by nature. Even worse, the user will often find the pagehas scrolled to a different position, causing disorientation.
Simplistic Interfaces
– the requirement for full page postback whenever theuser interface has to be changed imposes hefty limitations on the degree of sophistication of web user interfaces. Rich and smooth interfaces with on-demand update could only be implemented using Flash technology. Thisapproach, however, is impractical for general use since it is very complex andrequires a much different set of skills than those possessed by the typical webdeveloper. It can also cause end-user issues as a plug-in is often required.
Low Usability
– if a web application reloads the whole page because theuser made a new selection on a form, they will get confused. It is often thecase that web applications work in a confusing and esoteric way because theweb application has been built around the standard, simple view of theInternet protocols. ASP.NET meant we could build applications with morefunctionality more quickly, usability has a way to go yet.AJAX was born with the idea to change all this and narrow the functional gapbetween the desktop and the web. The new generation of AJAX-enabled applicationsdelivers close-to-instantaneous performance, rich interfaces and tremendouslyimproved user experience. It opens new horizons for much closer interaction with theapplication and demonstrates in practice what was until recently consideredimpossible:
Real-time map panning in Google Maps and Virtual Earth is just like imagepanning in Adobe® Photoshop®
Folder browsing, message previewing, etc. in Microsoft® Outlook® WebAccess is identical to that in the desktop version of Outlook.
Validation checking on complex input fields can be performed by the server,without reloading the page.
Virtual scrolling of huge tables with
t
elerik r.a.d.
grid
is as fast as in MicrosoftExcel®What's interesting to know is that AJAX is not actually that new as a technology. Ithas been first used after Microsoft implemented Microsoft.XMLHTTP COM object thatwas part of The Microsoft® XML Parser distributive. As an ActiveX object in InternetExplorer 5, it was used to create the famous Outlook Web Access. You have probably
 
seen AJAX in action for quite long in the MSDN Documentation treeview navigation.What is new actually is the name AJAX, which was widely accepted in 2005. Otherlabels for the same technology are Load on Demand, Asynchronous Requests,Callbacks, Out-of-band Calls, etc.What's even more interesting is that AJAX is actually not a technology. It is more likea development technique that utilizes in a unique way a number of already maturetechnologies: HTML/XHTML, XML, DHTML, the XmlHttpRequest object, andJavaScript. For the purposes of simplicity we will refer to it as technology as it iswidely accepted as such and provides a useful language to discuss the characteristicsof the significant trend it represents.How does AJAX work?The core idea behind AJAX is to make the communication with the serverasynchronous, so that data is transferred and processed in the background. As aresult the user can continue working on the other parts of the page withoutinterruption. In an AJAX-enabled application only the relevant page elements areupdated, only when this is necessary.In contrast, the traditional synchronous (postback-based) communication wouldrequire a full page reload every time data has to be transferred to/from the server.This leads to the following negative effects:
The user interaction with the application is interrupted every time a server callis needed, since a postback has to be made.
The user has to wait and look at blank screen during each postback.
The full page is being rendered and transferred to the client after eachpostback, which is time consuming and traffic intensive.
Any information entered by the user will be submitted to the server, perhapsprematurely.

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