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Published by DonFletcher

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Published by: DonFletcher on Apr 10, 2012
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Notes of Clarification4On to the more fundamental problem6Packinghouse operations10General operations12Dumping15Washing16Waxing18Sorting21Sizing23Fruit packing line28Section 4: Packing and packaging materials29Packing practices31Packing containers34Packaging practices46Labeling49Modularization of containers50Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)52Unit loads54Section 5: Decay and insect control56Chemical controls57Controlled/modified atmosphere treatments60Heat treatments61Section 5: Decay and insect control62Chemical controls63Controlled/modified atmosphere treatments67Heat treatments68Section 5: Decay and insect control69Chemical controls70Controlled/modified atmosphere treatments74Heat treatments75Section 6: Temperature and relative humidity control76Room cooling77Forced-air cooling79Hydro-cooling82Evaporative cooling83Night air ventilation88Chilling injury90Use of ice91Alternative methods of cooling96Increasing relative humidity96Section 6: Temperature and relative humidity control98Room cooling99Forced-air cooling101Hydro-cooling104Evaporative cooling105Night air ventilation110Chilling injury112Use of ice113Alternative methods of cooling118Increasing relative humidity118Section 7: Storage of horticultural crops120Recommended storage temperatures121Compatibility groups for storage of fruits, vegetables and floral crops126Storage practices130Storage structures136Dried and bulb crops158Root and tuber crops159Potatoes160Controlled atmosphere (C.A.) storage164Relative perishability and storage life of fresh horticultural crops168
Section 8: Transportation of horticultural crops169Open vehicles169Refrigerated trailers172Stacking patterns/handstacked173Stacking patterns/pallet and slip sheet loads178Bracing the load179Section 8: Transportation of horticultural crops181Open vehicles182Refrigerated trailers184Stacking patterns/handstacked185Stacking patterns/pallet and slip sheet loads190Bracing the load191Section 9: Handling at destination193Unloading194Storage temperatures196Sorting/repacking198Ripening199Display204Section 10: Processing of horticultural crops206Processing equipment206Preparation for processing208Solar drying210Forced-air dehydrators215Oil-burning dehydrators216Electric dehydrators217Oven drying218Drying flowers219Extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants221Canning222Juicing225Other methods of processing226Section 10: Processing of horticultural crops227Processing equipment228Preparation for processing230Solar drying231Forced-air dehydrators236Oil-burning dehydrators237Electric dehydrators238Oven drying239Drying flowers240Extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants242Canning243Juicing246Other methods of processing247General references248Section 2: Curing root, tuber and bulb crops250Field curing251Curing with heated air252Bulk systems for curing onions253Emergency curing254Q & As about Fresh Produce256How to Dry Fruits and Vegetables263Advantages of solar drying263Methods of drying264Sun drying264Disadvantages264Solar drying264Advantages of solar dryers264The drying process264Precautions265
Predrying treatments265Washing265Blanching266Procedure266Peeling266Cutting and slicing267Dryers267Dryer loading268It is important to keep flies and other insects from entering the cabinet and off the fruit because of the risk of contamination.268Unloading the dryer269Packaging and storing269Specific products270Fruit270Mangoes270Pineapples270Bananas271271Apples271Choose Which Drying Method is Right For You272The Drying Process273Vegetable Drying Guide273Fruit Leathers274Making Jerky275Ipomoea aquatica (Water Spinach)276Cultivation and culinary uses276Cultural references278Common Names278On to the more fundamental problem.It is my belief that one should look at religion and the political parties in their relationships with the state from a social and anthological perspective, therole interactions and negotiations between them play in forming and shaping a given civilization at a specifically given historic stage. The resulting shared “image, sense of statehood and peoplehood” created as a result of the interaction andnegotiations between the three aforementioned entities and its relationship toreality (How big are the lies?). It is on this basis , I believe that an approach to social engineering could be developed.As for myself, when I look at the society in which I live, I examine it from a Maslowian perspective. Where are we as a society on the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? I believe that Jamaica is fighting to achieve at home the first three needs inthe hierarchy, survival needs, security needs and love need. What is strange isthat from an international perspective, Jamaica could be seen as fighting to achieve the upper three needs starting from the love need (the need for association). The challenge is how to pull up the real Jamaica to the same level as its international image. Surely this is by no means a challenge for me to solve, it isfor those who were elected by the people to do. Equally I do not think that itis an easy objective to attain because the international image of the country ke

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